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    Fifty years of radar

    Skolnik, M.I.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 73 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1985.13132
    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 182 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    After the almost simultaneous, independent invention of radar in several countries of the world in the mid-1930s, radar development progressed rapidly with its use by both sides during World War II. Since then, radar has been growing through the years in both capability and in applications. In this paper, highlights of the first fifty years of modern radar development are briefly reviewed, current areas of interest are mentioned, and illustrations of many of the radars of the 1980s are given. View full abstract»

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    MIT Lincoln Laboratory Journal: Fifty years of radar

    Delaney, W.P. ; Ward, W.W.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 18 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MAES.2003.1167330
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 37 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This review assumes that many non-US readers may not be well-informed about the steps and work in radar development in the US after WW II to the present. Many know MIT by name and recall the famous Radiation Laboratory Series. But the more recent technical history has been less in the "public domain." In an attempt to correct this, one of the key institutions in the field, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory two years ago produced a special issue of their regular publication. Although the document currently at hand is not a book in the strict sense, the size, shape, and editorial comprehensiveness of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Journal's Fifty-Year Anniversary Issue (12, 2, 2000) justifies calling this article being treated as a book review. View full abstract»

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    Fifty years of noise radar

    Lukin, K.A. ; Narayanan, R.M.
    Radar Symposium (IRS), 2010 11th International

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The talk provides a historical account of noise radar from 1959 to 2009, describe notable results from world-wide R&D activities in noise radar, and predict possible developments over the next fifty years. View full abstract»

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    Fifty years of bistatic and multistatic radar

    Glaser, J.I.
    Communications, Radar and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings F

    Volume: 133 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1049/ip-f-1.1986.0096
    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 596 - 603

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The article begins with a review of the history of bistatic and multistatic radars, including the simultaneous introduction of radar technology in several countries during the 1930s and the various areas of technology development pursued by those countries. Technical descriptions are presented of nine different experimental systems. The article continues with a discussion of the potential military and nonmilitary advantages of bistatic radars compared with monostatic radars in special applications, including increased coverage, increased radar cross-section, avoidance of attack by antiradiation homing missiles, reduction in probability of intercept by electronic intelligence and direction-finding equipment, and elimination of interference caused by retrodirective jamming. The article concludes with an outline of several suggestions for future applications of bistatic and multistatic systems. View full abstract»

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    Fifty years of noise radar

    Lukin, K.A. ; Narayanan, R.M.
    Physics and Engineering of Microwaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves (MSMW), 2010 International Kharkov Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/MSMW.2010.5545990
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The talk provides a historical account of noise radar from 1959 to 2009, describe notable results from world-wide R&D activities in noise radar, and predict possible developments over the next years. View full abstract»

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    Waveforms design for modern radar: The chirp signal Fifty + years later

    Galati, G. ; Pavan, G. ; De Palo, F.
    European Radar Conference (EuRAD), 2014 11th

    DOI: 10.1109/EuRAD.2014.6991195
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 13 - 16

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The optimal design of chirp radar waveforms has to satisfy conflicting requirements. Optimal solutions for different values of the compression ratio are considered, evaluated and compared with each other. A proposed solution has the advantage of guaranteeing low range sidelobes (less than -50 dB below the peak for compression ratios greater than 256) while maintaining the transmitter to operate in saturation. The “chirp” waveforms, with either constant or non-constant amplitude, are also candidates for the build-up - by combination - of “semideterministic” signals for the use in noise and MIMO radar. View full abstract»

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    High-power radar studies of the ionosphere

    Evans, J.V.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 63 , Issue: 12
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1975.10032
    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 1636 - 1650
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Some fifty years ago, the first experiments were conducted that provided unequivocal evidence for the existence of an electrically charged region in the upper atmosphere capable of reflecting radio waves. Appleton and Barnett, in England, and Breit and Tuve, in the United States, conducted expeximents in which the height of the reflecting layer could be reduced. They observed echoes from several heights between 100 and 200 km. Some years later Watson-Watt coined the term ionosphere for this reflecting region. These early experiments led to the development of instruments, known as vertical-incidence sounders or ionosondes, to perform routine sounding of the reflection characteristic of the ionosphere, and a worldwide network of sounders continues in operation. The results these instruments obtained constituted the most important source of information on the properties of the atmosphere above 100-km altitude prior to about 1950, when high-altitude rocket research became practical. In the last 25 years, there has been an explosive growth in our knowledge of the properties of the upper atmosphere raising from in situ measurements made with rockets and satellites. Radio-wave investigations have continued to make very important contributions, however, owing to the development of a new sounding technique known as incoherent scatter. In this method a very-high-power VHF or UHF radar is employed to observe the weak signals backscattered by density fluctuations in the ionosphere resulting from the random thermal motion of the electrons and ions. Unlike the older reflection technique, this permits the variation of the electron concentration to be measured to very great altitudes (≥ 10 000 km); moreover, the temperatures of the electrons and the ions may be determined separately. Over certain altitude ranges the following additional information may be obtained: the concentration, temperature, and horizontal wind velocity of the neutral particles; the intensity and direction of the polarization electric field (established by the neutral wind and/or the interaction of plasma from the sun with the geomagnetic field); the transport of ionization and heat to, or from, the magnetosphere (i.e., the outermost portion of the ionized envelope- surrounding the earth); information on the production of photoelectrons by the sun. The paper provides a brief summary of the early reflection experiments, and outlines the principles and practice of the new method. The power of the incoherent scatter technique is illustrated by examples of recent results. In conclusion, current plans to construct large new radars to study the auroral ionosphere are described. View full abstract»

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    A Half Century of Radar

    Barton, D.K.
    Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 32 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.1984.1132828
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 1161 - 1170
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    As the IEEE celebrates its 100th anniversary, the practitioners of radar look back on fifty years of progress in their specialized field. Although microwave radar has been the dominant concern for most of this period, the earliest efforts and some of the most recent have used other regions of the spectrum-metric and now micrometer wavelengths. The evolutionary development of radar can be traced through this half century, punctuated by several major innovations in techniques and components: the microwave magnetron, high-power klystron and Amplitron transmitting tubes, coherent signal processing, monopulse tracking, pulse compression, electronically steered arrays, digital processing and control, and solid-state microwave devices. By comparing the appearance and performance of typical radar systems developed before and after each of these innovations, we can see how they have affected the art of radar, and we may also be able to predict what future developments will bring to this ever-changing field. View full abstract»

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    Analytical techniques in scattering

    Senior, T.B.A.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2000. IEEE

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.2000.874551
    Publication Year: 2000

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. There are very few geometries for which exact analytical solutions of a scattering problem are available, and these are almost all limited to bodies whose surface is a complete coordinate surface in one of the six coordinate systems for which the vector wave equation is separable. At the dawn of the last century, the Mie series solution for a homogeneous sphere and the Sommerfeld-Carslaw multiform solution for a perfectly conducting wedge were available, but the ability to extract meaningful information from these was limited, and in England at least, data computed from the Mie series was classified in World War II. With the advent of radar, it became necessary to estimate, and later reduce, the scattering from realistic targets, and this led to significant advances in our analytical capability. This paper presents a personal view of some of the themes that have underlaid scattering work over the past fifty years. Among these are the early computations of the exact eigenfunction expressions for the cone and prolate spheroid; integral equation and transform techniques; the Luneburg-Kline expansion establishing the rigorous connection between geometrical optics and electromagnetic theory, and the introduction by Keller in 1953 of the concept of diffracted rays, leading to the geometrical theory of diffraction; the analogous physical theory of diffraction conceived by Ufuntsev that had physical optics as its base and that, in the hands of Mitzner and others, played a role in stealth technology; and low frequency techniques. View full abstract»

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    Laser measurements of long distances

    Bender, P.L.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 55 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1967.5718
    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 1039 - 1045
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The extension of radio frequency techniques to the optical region of the spectrum has made possible many types of measurements which were not feasible before. One area in which important scientific contributions can be expected during the next few years is the use of lasers to measure long distances with high accuracy. Three types of distance measurements which have been discussed in the literature and which are now being investigated actively are: 1) interferometric measurements over distances of up to hundreds of meters through evacuated or sealed-off tubes, 2) measurements with modulated laser beams over distances of perhaps one to fifty kilometers with corrections made for the atmospheric index of refraction along the path, and 3) range measurements to artificial satellites and to the moon using laser radar. Some of the possible geophysical and geodetic applications of such measurements will also be discussed. View full abstract»

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    Millimeter RADAR at Georgia Tech

    Dyer, F.B. ; Reedy, E.K.
    Microwave Symposium Digest, 1974 S-MTT International

    Volume: 74 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MWSYM.1974.1123517
    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 152

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper outlines the history of millimeter RADAR research at Georgia Tech during the past twenty years. During this period, numerous important developments have been achieved by investigators at Georgia Tech in the understanding and application of millimeter waves. Milestones in this work include 35 GHz propagation and scattering investigationa dating from the early fifties (results of which are still widely referenced); early application of 70 GHz, submillimeter radiometric and spectroscopic investigations beyound 300 GHz; development of unique, low-loss scanning antennas; and fabrication and testing of complete scanning RADAR systems at 70 GHz. Recent research includes investigations of scattering phenomena at all of the millimeter RADAR bands and the development of extremely high performance antennas at 70 and 95 GHz, View full abstract»

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    Near-Field, Broadband Adaptive Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    Viola, F. ; Ellis, M.A. ; Walker, W.F.
    Signals, Systems and Computers, 2006. ACSSC '06. Fortieth Asilomar Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ACSSC.2006.355017
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1543 - 1547

    IEEE Conference Publications

    For over fifty years adaptive beamforming (ABF) algorithms have been applied in RADAR and SONAR signal processing. These algorithms reduce the contribution of undesired off-axis signals while maintaining a desired response along a specific look direction. Typically, ABF achieves higher resolution and contrast than conventional beamforming (CBF), at the price of an increased computational load. In this paper we describe a novel ABF designed for medical ultrasound, named the time-domain optimized near-field estimator, or TONE. We performed a series of simulations using ultrasound data to test the performance of this algorithm and compare it to conventional, data independent, delay and sum beamforming. We also performed experiments using a Philips SONOS 5500. CBF was applied using the default parameters of the Philips scanner, whereas TONE was applied on single-channel, unfocused data with plane wave transmit. TONE images were reconstructed at a sampling of 67 mum laterally and 19 mum axially. The results obtained for a series of 5 20 mum wires in a water tank show a significant improvement in spatial resolution when compared to CBF. We also analyzed the performance of TONE as a function of speed of sound errors and array sparsity, finding TONE robust to both. View full abstract»

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    2B-5 Ultrasound Imaging with Beamforming Adapted to Target

    Viola, F. ; Ellis, M.A. ; Walker, W.F.
    Ultrasonics Symposium, 2006. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2006.45
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 128 - 131

    IEEE Conference Publications

    For over fifty years adaptive beamforming (ABF) algorithms have been applied in RADAR and SONAR signal processing. These algorithms reduce the contribution of undesired off-axis signals while maintaining a desired response along a specific look direction. Typically, ABF achieves higher resolution and contrast than conventional beamforming (CBF), at the price of an increased computational load. In this paper we develop a novel ABF that can be applied to medical ultrasound, named the Time-domain optimized near-field estimator, or TONE. We performed a series of simulations using ultrasound data to test the performance of this algorithm and compare it to conventional, data independent, delay and sum beamforming. We also performed experiments using a Philips SONOS 5500. CBF was applied using the default parameters of the Philips scanner, whereas TONE was applied on single-channel, unfocused data with plane wave transmit. TONE images were reconstructed at a sampling of 67mum laterally and 19mum axially. The results obtained for a series of 5 20mum wires in a water tank show a significant improvement in spatial resolution when compared to CBF. We also analyzed the performance of TONE as a function of speed of sound errors and array sparsity, finding TONE robust to both View full abstract»

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    Radar in World War II: the South African contribution

    Austin, B.A.
    Engineering Science and Education Journal

    Volume: 1 , Issue: 3
    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 121 - 130

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The science and engineering of radar are not much more than fifty years old and recently that brief history has been the subject of much examination. Although the contributions of the major powers towards the development and use of radar are well known, very little has been published about the pioneering work done in other countries, particularly those in the southern hemisphere. The author describes the development and operational use of a radar system by the South Africans at the outbreak of World War II. The success of that major undertaking was due to the key people involved and their role in this saga is emphasised View full abstract»

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    Bistatic scattering characterization of a complex object

    Eigel, R.L., Jr. ; Terzuoli, A.J. ; Nesti, G.
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1999. IGARSS '99 Proceedings. IEEE 1999 International

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.1999.773531
    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 455 - 457 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Although much of the radar development over the past fifty years has been focused in the monostatic domain, a bistatic detection approach offers several key benefits. Without proper understanding of the bistatic scattering mechanisms, exploitation of these benefits may not be fully realized. This paper addresses some phenomenological aspects of bistatic scattering from a complex object with an emphasis on specular and shadowing effects. Both ray tracing and scattering center approaches are used to describe the bistatic mechanisms. An appraisal of the effectiveness and utility of the bistatic equivalence theorems and a popular commercial scattering prediction code is also accomplished. Finally some rules of thumb are proposed as a guide in evaluating the effectiveness of bistatic radar cross section (RCS) prediction methods for arbitrary complex shapes View full abstract»

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    Bistatic scattering characterization of a complex object

    Eigel, R.L., Jr. ; Terzuoli, A.J., Jr.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1999. IEEE

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/APS.1999.788301
    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1784 - 1787 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Although much of the radar development over the past fifty years has been focused in the monostatic domain, a bistatic detection approach offers several key benefits. Without proper understanding of the bistatic scattering mechanisms, utilization of these benefits may not be fully realized This paper addresses some phenomenological aspects of bistatic scattering from a complex object with an emphasis on specular, shadowing, dihedral and cavity effects. Both ray tracing and scattering center approaches are used to describe the bistatic mechanisms. An appraisal of the effectiveness and utility of the bistatic equivalence theorems and several commercial scattering prediction codes are also accomplished. Finally some rules of thumb are proposed to help guide the reader in evaluating the bistatic scattering of complex shapes in general. View full abstract»

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    Compact 24 horn linear array

    Thraves, J. ; Fairweather, S.R.
    Antennas and Propagation, 1991. ICAP 91., Seventh International Conference on (IEE)

    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 209 - 212 vol.1

    IET Conference Publications

    Thorn EMI Electronics has been involved in airborne radar for over fifty years, producing both demonstration systems and production radar such as the very successful Searchwater Maritime Reconnaissance Radar. The paper describes the design and performance of an antenna required for an airborne synthetic aperture radar demonstrator. The antenna uses a linear array of 24 horns to produce the azimuth pattern with a parabolic cylinder configured to form the pattern in the elevation plane. The waveguide feed to the 24 horns is arranged to produce both sum and difference patterns to allow for monopulse operation. There are restrictions imposed on the antenna, due to the airborne application, in terms of size and weight, hence the need to produce a compact overall structure. The antenna is required for high power operation, which requires pressurisation of the waveguide feed and feedhorns to prevent breakdown at high altitude View full abstract»

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    Medical Electronics

    Perkins, W.J.
    Radio and Electronic Engineer

    Volume: 45 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1049/ree.1975.0119
    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 617 - 622

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The application of electronics to medicine did not follow an expected course of being delayed somewhat upon original technological developments. Instead, apart from specific applications, the subject found no general application until the value of electronics in radar and communications had been clearly demonstrated. Thus the main impetus came with a delay approaching fifty years so that the medical applications have occurred mainly in the past twenty-five years. View full abstract»

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    Comments on hybrid-polarity SAR architecture

    Raney, R.K.
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2007. IGARSS 2007. IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.2007.4423282
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 2229 - 2231
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Recent work on compact polarimetry is reviewed in the context of the fifty-year history of polarimetric diversity. One promising form of this genre is hybrid-polarity (CL-pol), in which a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) transmits circular polarization and receives on two orthogonal mutually-coherent linear polarizations. The CL-pol technique is compared and contrasted to alternative compact polarimetric schemes. Useful characteristics that are unique to the hybrid-polarity architecture are described, especially rotational invariance and polarimetric calibration. View full abstract»

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    Fifty Years as an American Microwave Engineer

    Vendelin, G.D.
    Microwave Conference, 2007. APMC 2007. Asia-Pacific

    DOI: 10.1109/APMC.2007.4554586
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper gives the history of the development of the first X-band solid-state radar developed at Texas Instruments 1964-1970, which has lead the way to today's MIC and MMIC technology for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. View full abstract»

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    A history of oscilloscope development in Lithuania and neighbor countries

    Denisov, H.A.
    Radar Symposium (IRS), 2010 11th International

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This article describes a history of oscilloscope development in Lithuania and neighbor countries during fifty years. View full abstract»

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    Fifty years of instantaneous frequency measurement

    East, P.W.
    Radar, Sonar & Navigation, IET

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0177
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 112 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Quadrature phase discriminators, the core of wideband instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) receivers and multiple base-line interferometry for accurate direction finding (DF), were invented in 1957, by S.J. Robinson of Mullard Research Laboratories (MRL). Digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) receivers have been universally used operationally for wideband monitoring of radar environments in naval, airborne and ground-based electronic support measures (ESM) systems all over the world for over 50 years. Their importance is such that many countries have developed their own IFM manufacturing capability with just minor architectural changes to the original design. This study describes the invention sequence, the development history, IFM design and performance principles, its general use and limitations in modern electronic warfare (EW) systems and ends with a projection for the future. View full abstract»

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    Iceberg Grounding and Scouring Frequency, Labrador Sea

    Woodworth-Lynas, C. ; Simms, A. ; Rendell, C.
    OCEANS 1984

    DOI: 10.1109/OCEANS.1984.1152335
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 259 - 262

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Iceberg scouring presents a major problem in the placement of pipelines and other seabed installations at producing wells in the iceberg-rich waters of the eastern Canadian continental shelf. Over fifty grounded and scouring icebergs have been identified from iceberg observations made at twelve exploratory wellsites on the Labrador and northeast Newfoundland shelf areas. From these data sets, icebergs which remained stationary for twelve hours or more, were considered to be grounded. Bergs which moved into shallower water from the grounding sites were interpreted to be scouring. We found that icebergs can scour both up and downslope; one berg scoured over a vertical interval of 45 m. Many scour tracks exceeded lengths of 20 km and some exceeded 50 km. The grounding frequency varied greatly between years and wellsites; the average, however, ranges between 5 groundings per 100 bergs at 59\deg N and 3.4 per 100 at 56\deg N. View full abstract»

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    Fifty Years of EMC Research At Georgia Tech

    Denny, H.W.
    Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2007. EMC 2007. IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISEMC.2007.93
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Research studies in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) have been underway at GTRI since 1953. Investigations have ranged from studies of the nonlinear properties of solid state junctions to the development of control methods for widely dispersed systems. Highlights of accomplishments and contributions during this half-century plus are presented View full abstract»

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    The Radiation Laboratory, fifty years later (telecom and remote sensing)

    Flock, W.L.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 33 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/74.97948
    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 43 - 48

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The author gives his impressions of the Radiation Laboratory of MIT as it existed from 1940 to 1945. He explores relationships of developments at the lab to present activity in radiowave propagation and remote sensing. His comments relate primarily to telecommunications and nonmilitary applications of remote sensing.<> View full abstract»

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