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    Evolution of subscriber loop systems - The history of ISSLS technical issues

    Mosher, R.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 25 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.1987.1093562
    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 7 - 12

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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    Loop Evolution--Its Dynamics and Driving Forces

    Homayoun, F.
    Communications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 28 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1980.1094748
    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 976 - 982

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The basic concept of the present loop was initiated with the invention of the telephone. The loop plant has persistently been responsible for a major share of the total capital expenditures in the telephone network. It has also been the most reluctant part of the network to benefit from new technologies. Its evolution has been mostly confined to areas of distribution topologies, administration, and improvement in hardware. The main driving forces shaping the evolution of the loop plant in the past have been the cost effectiveness in loop subsystems and the interactive forces resulting from the evolution of the switching machines and the subscriber terminals. The emergence of new services, demanded by the subscribers as a result of socioeconomic evolution, and solicited by the common carriers with the promise of additional revenues and better utilization of "network resources," can be considered as a new dimension to the driving forces. Related new technologies are the vehicles enabling the actualization of the above driving forces. The main aim of this paper is to identify the interrelationships that exist between various elements of the loop system as well as assessing the nature of the impact which various evolutionary forces exert upon it. Logical arguments are offered to demonstrate that the loop evolution is pointing towards loop systems that provide more throughput at less cost and greater service flexibility. Terms and concepts are defined and introduced to support the above arguments. It is concluded that the short-term evolution of the loop plant will be dominated by the marriage of copper loops and electronics prior to the introduction of integrated fiber optics distribution systems. View full abstract»

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    Subscriber care of a wireless local loop system

    Helokunnas, T. ; Janhonen, R.
    Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 1997. Waves of the Year 2000. PIMRC '97., The 8th IEEE International Symposium on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC.1997.631103
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 604 - 608 vol.2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper focuses on a subscriber positioning system (SPS). The SPS is a customer care system for managing subscribers of a GSM 900/1800/1900 technology based wireless local loop (WLL) system. The SPS is a geographical information system (GIS) and it contains both information of the radio network and subscribers. A WLL subscriber has no rights to move within the network. The location of a WLL subscriber is used for finding radio network cells that provide network service on the subscriber location. The subscriber gets telephone services only inside these cells. A WLL operator needs a SPS for defining and maintaining service providing cells of WLL subscribers. Particularly, the subscriber care system is required during network evolution when the service providing cells of subscribers can change View full abstract»

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    Video on phone lines: technology and applications

    Lin, D.W. ; Cheng-Tie Chen ; Hsing, T.R.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 83 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/5.364467
    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 175 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper reviews the telephone loop plant characteristics, current DSL (digital subscriber line) technologies, recent efforts in video coding standards, and the interrelationship between DSL technologies and visual communications over subscriber lines. In overview of the loop plant characteristics we examine its physical makeup and transmission properties, where for the latter we discuss frequency and time responses of wire-pair lines and the impairments of echo, crosstalk, impulse noise, and radio frequency interference. We trace the historical development of various DSL technologies and comment on possible future evolution. Transmission technologies used in the ISDN basic-access DSL, the high bit-rate DSL, and the asymmetric DSL are portrayed. And the issue of spectrum compatibility among different transmission systems is explained. Several important video coding standards are briefly described, including ITU-T's H.261 and ISO's JPEG and MPEG series, which are either completed or emerging. The synergistic relationship between these standards and the DSL technologies is elucidated. As a result, DSL technologies provide the potential of delivering certain broadband services well in advance of direct fiber access for telephone subscribers View full abstract»

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    Positioning the Subscriber Loop Network for Digital Services

    Byrne, T. ; Coburn, R. ; Mazzoni, H. ; Aughenbaugh, G. ; Duffany, J.L.
    Communications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 30 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1982.1095698
    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 2006 - 2011
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (42)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The need to enhance the digital transmission capability of the local loop network to provide for new services is widely recognized in the telecommunications industry. Companies around the world [1]-[3] have been working towards this goal and plan to use digital loop carrier (DLC) to meet this demand. Although this approach is generally accepted, there has been little information presented on how to plan for the evolution of the local plant. To address these pressing issues, the Bell System is introducing a concept called fundamental subscriber carrier planning (FSCP). This paper discusses the impact that digital services will have on the subscriber loop network, including loop plant design requirements necessary to position the network for up to 64 kbit/s digital services. Existing cable plant has the capability to support most digital services, but there are specific design requirements that are quite different from those required for the "typical" analog voiceband service. This paper reviews the need to position the loop for digital services, and substantiates the major conclusion that digital loop carrier technology offers a significant advantage when provisioning for digital services. View full abstract»

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    A/D and D/A conversion for telecommunication

    Sevenhans, J. ; Zhong-Yyuan Chang
    Circuits and Devices Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/101.648605
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 32 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (11)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Emerging telecom systems such as ADSL and VDSL demand state-of-the-art high speed and high resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DBCs). Moreover, cost and power consumption issues require the use of specific A/D and D/A architectures to achieve the wanted resolution at the required speed at minimum power. In the first part of this article we present an overview of the various ADC and DAC architectures used in Alcatel Telecom systems over the past 15 years, with an emphasis placed on the evolution of ADCs and DACs for today's asymmetrical-digital-subscriber-loop (ADSL) applications. We then discuss design considerations for high-speed and high resolution ADCs for future very-high-data-rate digital subscriber-line (VDSL) technology View full abstract»

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    8-way, 70-km transmission of 33-channel 64-QAM signals utilizing 1.3-μm external modulation system and semiconductor optical amplifier

    Chen Tai ; Way, W.I.
    Optical Fiber Communications, 1996. OFC '96

    DOI: 10.1109/OFC.1996.908217
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 194 - 196

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Parallel to the evolution process of deep fiber penetration in the CATV subscriber loop will be the matured development of M-ary quadrature amplitude-modulation (M-QAM) modems and MPEG-II codecs, and the gradual replacement of all AM-VSB video channels by M-QAM digital video channels. Consequently, it is of great interest to see if potentially low-cost semiconductor optical amplifiers can be used to transport multiple channels of ITU-standardized 64-QAM signals. The feasibility of transmitting 33 channels of 64-QAM signals by using a directly modulated 1.3-μm DFB laser and a semiconductor optical amplifier has been recently demonstrated. In this paper, we demonstrate that the system power budget can be significantly increased by using an external modulation system. View full abstract»

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    Upgradable distribution for broadband networks

    Takano, J. ; Tanaka, N. ; Takasaki, Y.
    Communication Technology Proceedings, 2003. ICCT 2003. International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ICCT.2003.1209806
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1472 - 1475 vol.2
    Cited by:  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Upgrading strategies are investigated for application in future super-broadband subscriber loops, where such technologies as super-multi-channel distribution, super-high definition pictures, super large capacity storage and all-optical transport are expected to become available. Gradual upgrading is considered so that future systems can keep compatibility with existing systems. First, time frame and strategies for subscriber loop upgrade are overviewed and assumptions for evolution of broadband multimedia distribution systems are discussed. Next, upgrading strategies for broadband multimedia distribution are overviewed to discuss new schemes for representing broadband video channels. Finally, optimization of upgrading is investigated in terms of rotatable display schemes. View full abstract»

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    Line Circuit Interfaces for a Digital Switching System

    Dooley, G.
    Communications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 27 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/TCOM.1979.1094507
    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 978 - 982
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Crucial to the design of digital switching systems for local switching applications is the line circuit interface. It forms the boundary between the analog, 2-wire, subscriber loop, with its attendant environment hostile to low-voltage electronics, and the digital logic environment. ITT North's DSS uses a Quad Line Circuit (QLC) that provides the line circuit interface between four subscriber loops and two PCM multiplexed highways. The QLC contains per-line elements consisting of an electronic 2W/4W hybrid, transmit and receive PCM filters, a codec, two card-mounted relays, and distributed logic for various gating and clocking functions. In addition, there is digital logic common to all four lines for interfacing with redundant microprocessors common to 320 lines. Design of the QLC in a dynamic technology evolution is discussed, and several evolutions of the initial design are presented. View full abstract»

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    Passive components in the subscriber loop

    Keck, D.B. ; Morrow, A.J. ; Nolan, D.A. ; Thompson, D.A.
    Lightwave Technology, Journal of

    Volume: 7 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1109/50.45881
    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 1623 - 1633
    Cited by:  Papers (19)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The status of passive optical components for optical fiber subscriber loop systems is reviewed in the context of the most often discussed architectures. These architectures and the passive component types and functions are described. It is shown how the components are meeting the key functional requirements of interconnection, furcation, and filtration. A logic flow to the evolution of the architecture which is based on the expected development of the passive components is indicated View full abstract»

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    An alternative interim solution on the road to BISDN

    Schiffler, R.A. ; Hensley, R.E. ; Alston, D.B. ; White, W.J.
    Communications, 1990. ICC '90, Including Supercomm Technical Sessions. SUPERCOMM/ICC '90. Conference Record., IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.1990.117017
    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1 - 4 vol.1
    Cited by:  Patents (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A proposed interim solution for the evolution from narrowband voice and data to BISDN (broadband integrated services digital network) using existing technologies is discussed. The proposed solution uses analog broadcast video and digital voice over single-mode fiber in an architecture that is evolvable to BISDN. It is noted that the amount of FTTS (fiber-to-the subscriber) technology available is constantly increasing such that systems that may be widely deployed in 5-10 years may not have even been invented yet. For example, higher powered lasers and Bellcore's passive photonic loop architecture are just two of many emerging technologies that may play a role in the evolution of FTTS systems View full abstract»

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    Automated Repair Service Bureau: Evolution

    Boggs, P.S. ; Bowker, M.W. ; Overstreet, E.A. ; Vetter, R.W.
    Bell System Technical Journal, The

    Volume: 61 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1982.tb04332.x
    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 1097 - 1114

    Alcatel-Lucent Journal

    This paper describes the evolution of a family of integrated computer-based operations support systems, the Automated Repair Service Bureau (ARSB). The ARSB supports the maintenance of a telephone customer's service from the local switch to the subscriber's premises (i.e., the loop portion of the service). The automation of labor-intensive manual tasks has made it possible to provide better service at lower cost. View full abstract»

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    Upgradable distribution for broadband networks

    Takano, J. ; Takasaki, Y.
    TENCON 2004. 2004 IEEE Region 10 Conference

    Volume: B
    DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.2004.1414677
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 640 - 643 Vol. 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Upgrading strategies are investigated for application in future super-broadband subscriber loops, where such technologies as super-multichannel distribution, super-high-definition pictures, super large capacity storage and all-optical transport are expected to become available. Gradual upgrading is considered so that future systems can keep compatibility with existing systems. First, time frame and strategies for subscriber loops upgrade are overviewed and assumptions for evolution of broadband multimedia distribution systems are discussed. Next, upgrading strategies for broadband multimedia distribution are overviewed to discuss new schemes for representing super-high-definition (SHD) video channels and to show that considerably large number of additional channel counts can be required when upgradability and compatibility are taken into consideration. Finally, optimization of above mentioned upgradable and compatible super-multimedia distribution schemes is investigated. View full abstract»

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    Local loop system evolution toward B-ISDN with an integrated MAN/DLC

    Takase, A. ; Yanagi, J. ; Takasaki, Y.
    Communications, 1991. ICC '91, Conference Record. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.1991.162462
    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 758 - 762 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A strategy is described for subscriber loop systems and architectures leading to broadband ISDN, from the service and economy viewpoints. Since remote multiplexing is the key function for offering initial broadband services as economically as 64-kb/s services, an integrated metropolitan area network/digital loop carrier (MAN/DLC) architecture and a distributed multiplexing scheme are proposed. This architecture supports the independent evolution of transport core networks and customer premises networks and equipment, at a cost comparable with an ordinary approach. Node architectures with the distributed multiplexing are discussed in terms of bus multiplexing, call processing, and LSI implementation. Feasibility studies of this architecture have been conducted with prototypes that incorporate three basic LSIs for the B-ISDN transmission convergence layer and the ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) layer View full abstract»

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    The all digital loop: benefits of an integrated voice-data access network

    Ploumen, F.M. ; De Clerq, L.
    Communication Technology Proceedings, 2000. WCC - ICCT 2000. International Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/ICCT.2000.889160
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 16 - 21 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the evolution towards the multi-service network, voice and data, today's most important services, will be transported over a single network infrastructure. Although digital subscriber line (xDSL) systems can already transport both services simultaneously over a single twisted telephone pair, they still use separate frequency bands. There is a tendency to carry the telephony signal in-band, as part of the digital data stream. This paper discusses several benefits of an integrated voice-data access network based on xDSL. In a DSL-based solution carrying voice in-band, the bulky plain old telephone service (POTS) splitter that is normally required to separate voice and data becomes superfluous, resulting in higher density. An all-digital loop can use the lower part of the frequency spectrum that was reserved for POTS. Simulations have shown that the flexibility and high spectral efficiency of discrete multitone modulation (DMT) increase the capacity or reach. The lifeline service for voice is also considered. A DSL low-power mode, which only uses the elements needed to support voice service, can help achieve this goal View full abstract»

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    Full-duplex data over local loops

    Lin, N. ; Tzeng, C.-J.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 26 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/35.428
    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 31 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    An overview is provided of digital subscriber loops (DSLs), which are an essential part of the evolution from the integrated digital network (IDN) to the integrated services digital network (ISDN). Transmission impairments inherent in the subscriber loops are outlined, and their design is considered. Each of the essential elements in a DSL system is discussed in some detail, with emphasis on the tradeoffs of various design approaches.<> View full abstract»

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    Technologies towards broadband ISDN

    Murano, K. ; Murakami, K. ; Iwabuchi, E. ; Katsuki, T. ; Ogasawara, H.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 28 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/35.52918
    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 66 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (8)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    It is argued that it is vital to form a sound strategy for developing broadband integrated services digital network (BISDN) technology and services and deploying them in the field, so that smooth migration from the existing network is accelerated. Three major steps in this context are to expand fiber networks into the subscriber loop area to provide broadband capabilities everywhere, to construct a universal digital network that facilitates smooth evolution from the existing network to the broadband network of the future through deployment of (SDH) synchronous digital hierarchy transmission systems, and to integrate both services and network components through introduction of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technologies. Development efforts now being carried out at Fujitsu and Fujitsu Laboratories along this line are described, and the impact on network construction and service offerings is indicated.<> View full abstract»

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    The use of multi-fiber ferrules in FTTP applications

    Knecht, D. ; Luther, J.
    Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006

    DOI: 10.1109/OFC.2006.215378
    Publication Year: 2006

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the long-awaited arrival of the fiber-to-the-premises initiative (FTTP), there has been a focused effort to devise the most effective solutions for construction of the needed outside plant infrastructure. The outcome of this activity is a preconnectorized solution for the distribution network based on the MT ferrule. The main advantages of the MT-based solution include lower initial capital investment per home passed, speed of deployment, and a reduced need for precise field measurements of the cable plant. The lower capital requirement for service providers results from the ability to delay in time the placement of the network access point terminal with its associated adapters and pigtails. The speed of deployment advantage comes from the compact nature of the resulting tap point. An overmold process is used to provide a small, flexible solution that works well with outside plant installation practices. Due to its flexibility, it can be routed easily. The reduced need for field tap location measurement accuracy stems from the fact that one can now install the cable and measure exactly where the final terminal needs to be because of a flexible tether length that is part of the design. An additional advantage attributable to the use of the tether is the ability to use whatever enclosure solution makes sense in a given application without regard for whether or not it passes through a sheave wheel. The proposed paper will cover the evolution of the terminal distribution system for FTTP networks and discuss the capability and performance of the new MT-based system. Test data on a new multifiber ferrule based connector to Telcordia GR-3120 will be presented. Additional testing of the completed assembly to Telcordia GR-3122 will be presented. View full abstract»

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    Fiber-in-the-loop evolution scenarios for B-ISDN and TV/HDTV

    Moehrmann, K.
    Communications, 1993. ICC '93 Geneva. Technical Program, Conference Record, IEEE International Conference on

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.1993.397613
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 1922 - 1926 vol.3
    Cited by:  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The author discusses some of the reasons why additional dark fibers should be installed in the fiber-in-the-loop (FITL) projects to be implemented in the near future to be able to upgrade systems to broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) at a later time. By using various fibers for interactive and distributive services, it becomes possible to develop the technologies for these services independent of each other. One of the benefits of this approach is that it does not impose stringent requirements on the allocation of optical wavelengths. Switched TV, which can only provide a limited number of TV channels on each line, is hampered by the lack of suitable standards and the fact that it is not compatible with consumer equipment. When digital terrestrial TV/HDTV is introduced, suitable receiver interfaces for this new signal format will be developed. The possibility of upgrading to TV/HDTV broadcasting in the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) format at a later date should be considered at an early stage View full abstract»

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    Transport network evolution strategies for ATM based B-ISDN

    Probst, P.A. ; Rao, S.
    Communications, 1990. ICC '90, Including Supercomm Technical Sessions. SUPERCOMM/ICC '90. Conference Record., IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.1990.117310
    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1469 - 1472 vol.4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The capabilities of existing transport networks and of synchronous digital hierarchy systems are discussed. The evolution of these networks toward the target broadband integrated services digital network based on asynchronous transfer mode implies new ATM-based transmission standards. This point is highlighted through the possible introduction strategies. Specifically, the introduction strategy that starts with the CCITT G.702 series and SDH and proceeds toward an optimized ATM transmission network is discussed, and the major advantages and disadvantages of each choice are outlined View full abstract»

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    Cost Analysis of WDM and TDM Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) Networks: A System-of-Systems Approach

    Rokkas, T. ; Neokosmidis, I. ; Katsianis, D. ; Varoutas, D.
    Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 42 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/TSMCC.2012.2227999
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1842 - 1853

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A system-of-systems (SoS) approach for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM) fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) telecommunication networks is presented. Cost evolution curves for individual systems as well for whole FTTH WDM and TDM networks are presented. The analysis can be exploited for a fast and accurate analysis of FTTH deployment costs in dense urban, urban, and suburban areas from the technoeconomic point of view, which is of paramount importance for telecom operators, equipment vendors, regulators, and policy makers. The impact of delaying the deployments or adopting different rollout strategies is also investigated and presented. The SoS emergent behavior is further revealed using exploratory modeling. The results reveal that in all cases, the WDM solution is more expensive than TDM. The total cost for suburban areas is almost six times higher than in dense urban areas and four times than urban areas. View full abstract»

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    Evolution of FITL system requirements for existing and new services

    Personick, C.A. ; Salloum, H.R. ; Seely, M.A.
    Optical/Hybrid Access Networks, 1993., 5th Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/OHAN.1993.587693
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 1.03/01 - 1.03/04

    IEEE Conference Publications

    At the end of 1990, a Technical Advisory, TA-NWT-000909, Issue 1, Generic Requirements and Objectives for Fiber in the Loop (FITL) Systems was issued. Bellcore is planning a release a second issue of TA-909. The two primary drivers for the planned re-issue of TA-909 are to improve existing requirements that may permit more cost-effective delivery of existing services and to provide initial requirements that enable upgrade of TR-909 systems for the transport of higher bandwidth services. The pending additions and changes that are currently being socialized within the industry, Bellcore and BCCs are outlined. Some of the key technical areas discussed include a more cost-effective platform for the delivery of existing telecommunications services, powering, the interrelationship between SONET (synchronous optical network), IDLC and FITL technologies, the changing transmission and operations environment impacting FITL system deployment, and higher bandwidth service capabilities and performance. The requirements evolution for existing telecommunications services is also discussed View full abstract»

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    How xDSL supports broadband services to the home

    Humphrey, M. ; Freeman, J.
    Network, IEEE

    Volume: 11 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/65.567564
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 14 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Why has xDSL suddenly achieved its present status as potentially the most promising of the broadband access technology options for both residential and business users? This article attempts to shed light on this question from both the technical and market perspectives. An overview of the family of xDSL technologies is provided, and a comparison is made to cable modem technologies. The evolution of xDSL regarding aspects of price, standardization, and interoperability is explored-demonstrating a strong technology push. Key factors of the ADSL business case are discussed-demonstrating a strong market pull. An overview of xDSL trials, applications, and network models is provided. The conditions are right for xDSL to advance rapidly to mass market adoption View full abstract»

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    US cellular network in the 90s

    Chien, E.S.K.
    Electrotechnics, 1988. Conference Proceedings on Area Communication, EUROCON 88., 8th European Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EURCON.1988.11091
    Publication Year: 1988
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Cellular RF technology needs are described, along with constraints on introducing novel RF technologies. A cellular network architecture referred to as the cellular access digital network (CADN) is described as a proposed basis for the digital cellular network. The concept of the CADN digital subscriber channel and universal service access and the activities associated with the cellular network evolution are also discussed.<> View full abstract»

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    The operations and maintenance aspects of high-speed copper access transmission systems

    Adams, P.F. ; Foster, K.T. ; Hind, M.
    Communications, 1994. ICC '94, SUPERCOMM/ICC '94, Conference Record, 'Serving Humanity Through Communications.' IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICC.1994.368866
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 432 - 436 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Copper access transmission systems, which provide high-speed communications (e.g. 2 Mbit/s) in one or both directions over local loops, are a recent innovation. The operation and maintenance of such systems poses some problems and offers some opportunities, which were not present in the passive copper loop environment, or with low-speed digital systems. These are discussed and set in the context of the revolution in access networks that is happening as optical fibre and other technologies are introduced. The evolution of the management of high-speed copper systems towards a vision of a centrally managed access network is described View full abstract»

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