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    Brief Summary of the Early History of COBOL

    Sammet, Jean E.
    Annals of the History of Computing

    Volume: 7 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MAHC.1985.10044
    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 288 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The two definitive presentations of the history of programming languages are: Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals, by Jean E. Sammet, and History of Programming Languages, edited by R. L. Wexelblat. The former was not intended to be just a history, but was an exposition of the state of the programming language field circa 1966-1967; the detailed descriptions of the origins of the languages in the book were at that time the most complete history published. In 1978 Sammet chaired the ACM/SIGPLAN Conference on the History of Programming Languages (HOPL) from which the text of the same title was created. In that volume are both a formal paper on the history of COBOL and the transcript of Sammet's presentation. This following article is an unedited extract from the formal paper, reprinted with the permission of ACM and Academic Press. We chose not to reprint the complete paper here because it is readily accessible, but we are printing a significant portion of it to provide Annals readers with an overview of the early COBOL development. The full version of the paper was reviewed in draft form by most of the key participants of that time period; they generally did not object to the information provided. Thus, that paper and the extract printed here present an accurate description of which people participated, or played major roles, or did not participate in the language definition. View full abstract»

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    The early history of packet switching in the UK [History of Communications]

    Kirstein, P.T.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 47 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2009.4785372
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 18 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this issue of the History Column we bring you an article by Prof. Peter Kirstein, one of the original contributors to early packet switching. We are probably all familiar with the history of the Internet, beginning with its genesis in the American-developed ARPAnet of the late 1960s and early 1970s. We may be less familiar with the contributions of British researchers, as well as those in other countries such as France, at about the same period of time, who worked closely with American researchers as well as independently in developing the packet-switching technology so fundamental to the Internet. Prof. Kirstein recounts the early activities by British engineers, led by Donald Davies of the National Physical Laboratory, the British Post Office, those of his own group at University College London, and others as well. He also ties this work into ongoing activities in the United States at the time. In future History Columns we plan to have similar articles by U.S. packet-switching pioneers on their own early activities in the field. This series of articles on the genesis of the Internet should be of great interest to all communication engineers. We commend the article following to your attention. View full abstract»

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    Early History of the A-C System in America

    Chesney, C.C. ; Scott, Chas.F.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: 55 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1936.5057247
    Publication Year: 1936 , Page(s): 228 - 235
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    As part of the Institute's celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the alternating-current system in America, which is being carried out under the auspices of a special committee,* this brief story of the inception and early history of the alternating current system has been prepared by 2 past-presidents of the Institute, both of whom were actively identified with the early development of the system, and both of whom have made many important contributions to the development and application of alternating current power. It is a story of achievement against the strenuous opposition of many prominent electrical engineers of that time. The present almost universal use of alternating current in the great electric power systems of today is in itself a fitting tribute to the genius and vision of George Westing-house and William Stanley who, through their long and persistent efforts under extraordinary difficulties established the first alternating current system in America on March 20, 1886. View full abstract»

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    Early history of the A-C system in America

    Chesney, C.C. ; Scott, Chas.F.
    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 55 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1936.6540520
    Publication Year: 1936 , Page(s): 228 - 235

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    As part of the Institute's celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the alternating-current system in America, which is being carried out under the auspices of a special committee, this brief story of the inception and early history of the alternating current system has been prepared by 2 pastpresidents of the Institute, both of whom were actively identified with the early development of the system, and both of whom have made many important contributions to the development and application of alternating current power. It is a story of achievement against the strenuous opposition of many prominent electrical engineers of that time. The present almost universal use of alternating current in the great electric power systems of today is in itself a fitting tribute to the genius and vision of George Westinghouse and William Stanley who, through their long and persistent efforts under extra-ordinary difficulties established the first alternating current system in America on March 20, 1886. View full abstract»

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    The Origins and Early History of Computer Engineering in the United States

    Jesiek, B.K.
    Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE

    Volume: 35 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MAHC.2013.2
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 6 - 18

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This article examines the origins and early history of the field of computer engineering in the United States, from the mid-1940s to mid-1950s. The account is based on both primary and secondary sources and draws theory from technology studies and the sociology of professions. The author begins by discussing roles played by engineers and engineering during the development of some of the first high-speed digital computers. He then describes the efforts of two electrical engineering institutes as they staked claims in computing, followed by a discussion of bifurcated versus integrated visions for the new field. In the final sections, the article turns to the emergence and establishment of computer engineering as a distinct field or specialty, primarily in the context of professional societies and private-sector firms. One main goal of this article is to show how the jurisdiction of engineering expanded to include computer hardware design. View full abstract»

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    Early history of the OSU ElectroScience Laboratory

    Sinclair, G.
    Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 33 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TAP.1985.1143545
    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 137 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The early history of the Antenna Laboratory (the name was later changed to the ElectroScience Laboratory) of The Ohio State University is sketched. The development of scale model antenna techniques is described, as applied to measuring the patterns of aircraft and missile antennas. Other projects included one for measuring full-scale antenna patterns of vehicular antennas for the U.S. Army and another on the development of a CW technique for studying the reflections from radar targets. Emphasized is the importance of including in historical accounts of the works of engineering the human involvement of the engineers who create them. View full abstract»

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    Early history of the proximity fuze (1937-40)

    Burns, R.W.
    Science, Measurement and Technology, IEE Proceedings A

    Volume: 140 , Issue: 3
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 224 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The RAF's air exercises of 1936-7 highlighted the inability of Fighter Command's force of obsolete biplane fighters to intercept modern, fast, monoplane bombers. One tactic suggested to counter this deficiency was known as 'bombing the bomber'. Both acoustic and photoelectric proximity fuzes were produced for this purpose and demonstrated before the outbreak of the Second World War. Several applications of the PE proximity fuze were advanced and partially developed in 1939-40. These included the use of the fuze in UPs (unrotated projectiles), in ground-influenced bombs, in an airfield defence scheme for protecting airfields against low flying aircraft and as a means of defending bombers against stern fighter attacks. The author considers the early history of the origin, development, potential applications, and limitations of some British proximity fuzes (principally the PEPF) and of their subsequent replacement by the radio proximity fuze. View full abstract»

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    Carrier-wave telephony over power lines: Early history [History of Communications]

    Schwartz, M.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 47 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2009.4752669
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 14 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this column we discuss the early history of power line voice communication, beginning in 1918 and continuing until the early 1930s. We note that these developments were based on the 1910 demonstration by Major George Squier of the United States Army Signal Corps of his "wired wireless" technique for transmitting multiple telephone channels over one pair of wires. Power companies world-wide picked up on this carrier-wave telephony technique for use over power lines, with electrical manufacturing companies such as GE and Westinghouse in the United States and Telefunken in Germany, among others, then developing a variety of systems for this purpose. By 1930, the technique had reached a period of maturity, with 1000 systems installed throughout Europe and the United States. View full abstract»

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    Maxwell, Hertz, the Maxwellians, and the early history of electromagnetic waves

    Sengupta, D.L. ; Sarkar, T.K.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 45 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2003.1203114
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 13 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In 1864, Maxwell conjectured from his famous equations that light is a transverse electromagnetic wave. Maxwell's conjecture does not imply that he believed that light could be generated electromagnetically. In fact, he was silent about electromagnetic waves, and their generation and detection. It took almost a quarter of a century before Hertz discovered electromagnetic waves and his brilliant experiments confirmed Maxwell's theory. Maxwell's ideas and equations were expanded, modified, and made understandable by the efforts of Hertz, FitzGerald, Lodge, and Heaviside, the last three being referred to as the "Maxwellians." The early history of electromagnetic waves, up to the death of Hertz in 1894, is briefly discussed. The work of Hertz and the Maxwellians is briefly reviewed in the context of electromagnetic waves. It is found that historical facts do not support the views proposed by some, in the past, that Hertz's epoch-making findings and contributions were "significantly influenced by the Maxwellians.". View full abstract»

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    The Early History of Microcircuitry: An Overview

    Brock, D.C. ; Laws, D.A.
    Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE

    Volume: 34 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MAHC.2011.85
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 7 - 19

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    From the 1940s into the early 1960s, hundreds of scientists and engineers worldwide pursued efforts in microcircuitry-miniaturized, integrated electronic circuits. By tracing the diverse activities and alternatives they explored-from early printed wiring to semiconductor integrated circuit efforts-this article provides the first comprehensive overview of the early history of microcircuitry. View full abstract»

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    Early History of SQL

    Chamberlin, D.D.
    Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE

    Volume: 34 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MAHC.2012.61
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 78 - 82

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    The early history of REXX

    Cowlishaw, M.
    Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE

    Volume: 16 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/85.329753
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 15 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    REXX is a procedural language with many novel features. Its goal was to make programming easier in the belief that getting the design right for people to use is more important than providing for easy implementation. REXX development depended on the use of electronic mail. As a result, and perhaps uniquely for a programming language, there is an essentially complete historical record of the design process and discussions. This article describes the early history of REXX, illustrated by quotations from the electronic mail record and from other contemporary documents.<> View full abstract»

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    Early history of remote sensing

    Cohen, C.J.
    Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop, 2000. Proceedings. 29th

    DOI: 10.1109/AIPRW.2000.953595
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 3 - 9

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper details a high level overview of the prominent aspects of the history of remote sensing. It details its early uses from antiquity to World War II View full abstract»

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    The Early History of Radar [Historical]

    Guarnieri, M.
    Industrial Electronics Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MIE.2010.937936
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 36 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The history of radar has often been told by the nations who used it to win World War II (WWII). History books often stated that radar won the war for the Allies. This is probably an overstatement, as both sides used radar. Research on radar started in eight nations well before WWII: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The first evidence of the radar principle sprung from wireless technology as early as 1897, when Alexander Popov observed interference caused by a passing ship while he was transmitting wireless signals. View full abstract»

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    The early history of the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)

    Mimura, T.
    Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 50 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/22.989961
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 780 - 782
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The early history of the high electron mobility transistor illustrates the way in which a new device idea occurs and is developed towards commercialization. The events which took place in our laboratory are described in this paper View full abstract»

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    Carrier-wave telephony over power lines- early history

    Schwartz, M.
    Electric Power, 2007 IEEE Conference on the History of

    DOI: 10.1109/HEP.2007.4510271
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 244 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper we focus on the early history of using power lines for voice communications, beginning in 1918 and carrying the story forward to the early 1930s, when telephony using power lines had essentially established itself as a mature technology worldwide. View full abstract»

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    The early history of pulse compression radar-the history of pulse compression at Sperry Gyroscope Company

    Cooke, C.E.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 24 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/7.18654
    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 825 - 833
    Cited by:  Papers (11)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The development of pulse compression radar at Sperry is related on the basis of the author's personal recollections. He discusses the first experiments, concept improvements, demonstration of the concept, system implementations, dealings with the US Patent Office, and finishing touches View full abstract»

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    An early history of the internet [History of Communications]

    Kleinrock, L.
    Communications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 48 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2010.5534584
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 26 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    It is impossible to place the origins of the Internet in a single moment of time. One could argue that its roots lie in the earliest communications technologies of centuries and millennia past, or the beginnings of mathematics and logic, or even with the emergence of language itself. For each component of the massive infrastructure we call the Internet, there are technical (and social) precursors that run through our present and our histories. We may seek to explain, or assume away, whatever range of component technologies we like. It is equally possible to narrow Internet history down to specific technologies with which we are the most familiar. View full abstract»

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    The early history of electronics III. Prehistory of radiotelegraphy

    Susskind, Charles
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.1969.5214055
    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 69 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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    Early History of the Antennas and Propagation Field until the End of World War I, Part I - Antennas

    Carter, P.S. ; Beverage, H.H.
    Proceedings of the IRE

    Volume: 50 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/JRPROC.1962.288096
    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 679 - 682
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The prediction by Maxwell in 1865 that electric oscillations in a circuit produce electric waves in the surrounding space stimulated scientists to devise experiments to detect the presence of these waves. Following the classical experiments of Hertz in 1888, many attempts were made to communicate at a distance by electric waves. Marconi was the first to demonstrate a complete workable system. His success was largely due to his clear understanding that high antennas with top loading were essential to transmitting signals over considerable distances. Since the early transmitters utilized spark gaps directly between the antenna and ground, the wavelength of the energy radiated increased as the dimensions of the antenna increased. This naturally led to the idea that long wavelengths were required for operation over long distances, particularly during day-light as indicated by Marconi. Thus, the usefulness of short waves for long-distance communication during daylight was destined to remain unknown until some 30 years later when Marconi himself pioneered the development of long-distance communication with short waves. The development of various types of long-wave antennas is described to the end of World War I. View full abstract»

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    The early history of US international broadcasting from the start of World War II

    Weldon, J.O.
    Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 34 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/11.1418
    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 82 - 86

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    At the time the US entered into world War II in 1941, there were eleven shortwave international broadcasting stations in the US, all privately owned by companies or foundations. Recognizing the psychological warfare potential of these facilities, the US Office of War Information (OWI), an agency under the Executive Office of the President, negotiated operating contracts with the owners and established studios in New York and San Francisco to provide government programming. This was the origination of the Voice of America. At the same time, budget requests were made to the US Congress and funds appropriated for shortwave facilities expansion and for certain overseas stations operated by the overseas branch of the OWI. The operational and expansion programs which increased the number of shortwave transmitters to 36 in eight station sites by the end of World War II are reviewed. At the end of the war, the OWI was replaced by the US Information Agency (USIA) with its international broadcast service operating the Voice of America. The further expansion of shortwave broadcasting under USIA is outlined View full abstract»

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    The early history of pulse compression radar-the development of AN/FPS-17 coded-pulse radar at Lincoln Laboratory

    Siebert, W.M.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 24 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/7.18655
    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 833 - 837
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The development of pulse compression radar at MIT Lincoln Laboratory is related on the basis of the author's personal recollections. He describes the formation of the Radar Techniques Group, the development of the concept, the first system constructed, and the selection of an appropriate code for the transmitted waveform View full abstract»

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    The early history of electronics II. The experiments of Hertz

    Sÿsskind, Charles
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 5 , Issue: 12
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.1968.5215478
    Publication Year: 1968 , Page(s): 57 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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    Keynote: The Coming Age of Virtual Organizations: Applying Lessons from the Early History of Geographically-Dispersed Collaboration

    Finholt, T.A.
    Global Software Engineering, 2008. ICGSE 2008. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICGSE.2008.46
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): xv

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Research agencies in the United States and around the world are now arguing for a new round of investment in computing and networks, termed "cyber infrastructure," to enable even more ambitious collaboration at the scale of thousands to tens of thousands of participants. Technology to support collaboration on this order is emerging, such as computational grids, and is being deployed within worldwide scientific enterprises, including the next generation of high energy physics experiments at CERN. However, despite this progress, it remains unclear whether lessons about effective virtual collaboration, gained from the first generation of collaborative tools, are being applied to guide the evolution of what have been termed "virtual organizations." This highlights socio-technical factors that undermine the effectiveness of virtual work and focuses on the special challenges of successfully addressing these factors in the coming age of virtual organizations. View full abstract»

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    The early history of electronics VI. Discovery of the electron

    Susskind, Charles
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 7 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.1970.5213558
    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 76 - 79

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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