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    Diffraction: the first recorded observation

    Cecchini, R. ; Pelosi, G.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 32 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/74.80496
    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 27 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The discovery of diffraction by Francesco Maria Grimaldi is described. He described the experiments that led to its discovery in the book De Lumine, first published in 1665, two years after Grimaldi's death. Grimaldi's life and his experimental observations are described. Newton's disregard of Grimaldi's work and substitution of the word inflexion for diffraction are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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    Grain influences on domains and read-back pulse distortions of ferrite MIG heads

    Schafer, Rudolf ; Argyle, B.E. ; Takayama, Shinji ; Dingley, D.
    Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 29 , Issue: 6 , Part: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/20.281328
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 3876 - 3878

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Direct observations using microellipsometry, Kerr microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction are made for the first time on individual grains in the leading pole-tip region of polycrystalline ferrite MIG heads intended for narrow track (⩽10-μm) data recording. These observations, compared with readback-after-write waveforms, indicate that waveform instabilities and asymmetry which can cause high error rate would be diminished by controlling grain size and orientation in this critical pole-tip region. When large grains (near the gap) exceed the single domain size (≃5 μm) but are oriented so their media-facing surface contains an easy-axis of magnetization, the head produces smaller asymmetry and instability than when missoriented (large) gap grains or multiple single-domain size grains are present View full abstract»

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    Ionosphere dynamics

    Munro, G.H. ; Heisler, L.H.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 51 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1963.2615
    Publication Year: 1963 , Page(s): 1475 - 1481

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Early studies of the ionosphere assumed that isoionic surfaces were substantially horizontal and smooth, and diurnal, seasonal and sunspot variations were worked out on that basis. In recent years, the attention of research workers has turned more and more to the study of irregularities and movements in ionization. Irregularities examined range in size from the order of hundreds of kilometers to tens of meters and apparent speeds of movement also show a wide variation. Examination reveals that many apparent discrepancies in results reported by different workers can be explained as the result of selectivity in acquisition of data due either to the widely varying methods of observation used, or to temporal or spatial variations in conditions observed. Recent observations with a high speed ionosonde, and recordings of signals from earth satellites are throwing new light on these phenomena, which at first may seem to increase the complexity, but on closer examination are tending to clarify results and point out methods of attack on the unresolved problems. View full abstract»

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