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    The ancient and modern history of EM ground-wave propagation

    Wait, James R.
    Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 40 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/74.735961
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 7 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (64)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Radio-wave transmission over the surface of the Earth is a subject of enquiry going back to the beginning of the century. In this review, an attempt is made to describe the ground-wave mechanism that is omni-present. We first call attention to the early analytical contributions of Zenneck and Sommerfeld, based on a flat-Earth model. The subsequent controversies, particularly with regard to the role of the Zenneck surface wave, are outlined. Further developments by other pioneers, such as van der Pol, Fock, Bremmer, Norton, and Millington, are reviewed, and an attempt is made to put these in a modern context. We also show that the trapped surface wave can be a significant contribution to the total ground-wave field, when the Earth boundary is sufficiently inductive. Mixed-path theory and confirming model tests by Ray King are described briefly, along with calculated propagation curves for twoand three-section paths. The bibliography includes references to related topics, such as tropospheric refraction and topographic influences View full abstract»

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    Electromagnetics - ancient and modern

    Christopoulos, C.
    Applied Electromagnetics, 2003. APACE 2003. Asia-Pacific Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/APACE.2003.1234455
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The paper describes the evolution of electromagnetics and the current state of the art in computational electromagnetics (CEM). After a historical perspective, the impact of electromagnetics (EM) on everyday life and an example of a modem computational modelling method are presented, followed by a brief discussion. It is shown that CEM plays an essential part in advanced technological developments. View full abstract»

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