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    Fifty years in control - the story of the IEEE Control Systems Society

    Abramovitch, D.Y. ; Franklin, G.F.
    Control Systems, IEEE

    Volume: 24 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/MCS.2004.1368479
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 19 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper provides an overview of the history of the IEEE Control Systems Society (CSS). It features commentary from all of the current and former editors-in-chief of the IEEE CSS publications as well as the current and former Society presidents. With the aid of the IEEE CSS archive DVD and stories from people who created and contributed to the Society, a clearer picture of how the Society began and where it is now can be obtained. View full abstract»

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    Fifty-Five Years in Control: The Story of the CSS

    Abramovitch, D.Y. ; Franklin, G.F.
    History of Technical Societies, 2009 IEEE Conference on the

    DOI: 10.1109/HTS.2009.5337833
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 17

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The IEEE Control Systems Society was established in 1954 and thus celebrates its fifty-fifth anniversary as the IEEE celebrates its 125 this year. As part of that celebration, we have compiled an overview of the history of this group. This paper will tell the story of the society as we have gleaned it from those who were around when it was founded, and who played critical roles in the development. As the science of control systems began to coalesce in the late 1940s, the push for some common understanding drove the various working groups towards a single organization. This organization came of age in the Cold War, when the push for practical solutions was matched by a need to rigorously understand this form of machine intelligence that despite its ancient origins was quite new in the engineering consciousness. In the past three decades, the CSS has transformed itself into a global organization with members and conferences in all parts of the world. View full abstract»

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    Bode lecture: games, decisions, and control: fifty years back, fifty years forward

    Basar, T.
    Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on

    Volume: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2004.1429483
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): vii

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Bode lecture: games, decisions, and control: fifty years back, fifty years forward

    Basar, T.
    Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2004.1428575
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): vii

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Bode lecture: games, decisions, and control: fifty years back, fifty years forward

    Basar, T.
    Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2004.1428585
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): vii

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Bode lecture: games, decisions, and control fifty years back, fifty years forward

    Basar, T.
    Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2004.1430181
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): vii

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Bode lecture: games, decisions, and control: fifty years back, fifty years forward

    Basar, T.
    Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on

    Volume: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2004.1429200
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): vii

    IEEE Conference Publications

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    Fifty Years in Dynamics and Control Research and Education [Historical Perspectives]

    McClamroch, N.
    Control Systems, IEEE

    Volume: 34 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/MCS.2014.2333313
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 99 - 102

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This issue of "Historical Perspectives" is the fourth in a series of remembrances from past presidents of the IEEE Control Systems Society. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Fifty Years of CDCs: Rises, Falls, and Trends in Systems and Control [President's Message]

    Cassandras, C.G.
    Control Systems, IEEE

    Volume: 32 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MCS.2012.2186909
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 10 - 13

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Prolog to "Fifty Years of Acoustic Feedback Control: State of the Art and Future Challenges"

    O'Donnell, R.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 99 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2090994
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 285 - 287

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Ever since the microphone was first connected to a loudspeaker, acoustical engineers have had to grapple with the unintended consequence of acoustic feedback, a phenomenon that occurs when the sound generating from a loudspeaker inadvertently returns to the microphone in a closed loop. This feedback not only deteriorates sound quality and limits achievable amplification, but its most characteristic feature is the howling effect it creates. In this paper, the authors evaluate current methods available for dealing with the problem and identify the challenges facing future research in developing reliable and affordable solutions to the problem of controlling acoustic feedback. View full abstract»

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    Fifty Years of Acoustic Feedback Control: State of the Art and Future Challenges

    van Waterschoot, T. ; Moonen, M.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 99 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2090998
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 288 - 327
    Cited by:  Papers (27)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The acoustic feedback problem has intrigued researchers over the past five decades, and a multitude of solutions has been proposed. In this survey paper, we aim to provide an overview of the state of the art in acoustic feedback control, to report results of a comparative evaluation with a selection of existing methods, and to cast a glance at the challenges for future research. View full abstract»

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    Notice of Retraction
    Short-Term Response of Koelreuteria paniculata Seedlings to Simulated Soils Polluted by Manganese Mining Wasteland in Central South China

    Kun Zhao ; Zhihong Huang ; Yu'e Maa ; Wenhua Xiang ; Changhui Peng ; Xiangwen Deng
    Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, (iCBBE) 2011 5th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/icbbe.2011.5781365
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Notice of Retraction

    After careful and considered review of the content of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.

    We hereby retract the content of this paper. Reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper.

    The presenting author of this paper has the option to appeal this decision by contacting TPII@ieee.org.

    Ecological restoration of abandoned mining region has been one of urgent tasks in China. Some plants can play a key role in restoration of the abandoned mining wasteland owing to capability in accumulation of heavy metals. Koelreuteria paniculata trees grow well in the manganese mining wasteland with a survival percent up to 95.6%. In order to study ecological adaptation and resistant mechanism of K. paniculata to manganese pollution, seedlings of K. paniculata potted in six soil treatments set as tailings, tailing mud, fifty-fifty of tailings and soil, fifty-fifty of tailing mud and soil, admixture of fifty-fifty of tailings and tailing mud, and control soil continued for one year. Based on the experiments, the results showed that a) the content of Mn was obviously higher in lateral roots than that in stumps, leaves, and stems, whereas the content of Mn was lower in stems than all the other organs in all the treatments with the exception of lower content in leaves than that in lateral roots grown in the control, b) the content of Mn in the organs aboveground was below the critical standard for hyperaccumulators, c) the ratio of the content of Mn in organs aboveground to that in roots was not more than 1. These results indicated that K. paniculata was a kind of manganese resistant plant, not a manganese hyperaccumulator, and its manganese-resistant capability might be relative to accumulation of Mn in lateral roots and not translocating to the other organs aboveground. View full abstract»

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    Modern control applications to manual control-historical perspective and future direction

    Day, C.N.
    Decision and Control including the 16th Symposium on Adaptive Processes and A Special Symposium on Fuzzy Set Theory and Applications, 1977 IEEE Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.1977.271576
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 226 - 229

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Control theory has been applied to modeling human operator response for the past thirty years. Progress in manual control theory and applications has, therefore, been intimately dependent upon the state-of-the-art in control theory. This close relationship is particularly evident in the modeling methodology dominant during certain periods of its history. Thus, in the fifties and early sixties, classical control theory was the underlying foundation of manual control. However, with the advent of modern control theory in the late sixties and seventies, there has been an increasing application of these new tools; specifically, linear optimal control methods are utilized in characterizing human response as a controller in closed-loop regulation or tracking tasks. This paper attempts to put these developments in manual control in historical perspective. Existing methodology is assessed in terms of the practical requirements in manual control system evaluation, test and design. The merits and limitations of present methods are identified followed by an enumeration of desirable objectives and directions in future research. View full abstract»

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    Challenges to control: A collective view--Report of the workshop held at the University of Santa Clara on September 18-19, 1986

    Levis, A.
    Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 32 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TAC.1987.1104602
    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 275 - 285
    Cited by:  Papers (18)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    During the last seven years, while structural changes have been taking place in the industrial sector of the U.S. and questions of technological leadership and technology transfer have been debated widely, new areas for research have been developing. This led the leadership of the IEEE Control Systems Society to recommend that a workshop be organized to assess the state of the art of the field and outline directions of research. An Organizing Committee, consisting of D. D. Siljak (Chairman), G. F. Franklin, A. H. Levis, and W. R. Perkins, submitted a proposal to the Systems Theory and Operations Research Program of the National Science Foundation to hold such a workshop at the University of Santa Clara, in Santa Clara, CA, on September 18-19, 1986. As part of the proposal effort, a Steering Committee was constituted to assist the organizers in selecting workshop participants and to carry out the preparalory work for the meeting. The twelve-member Steering Committee consisted of the four organizers and eight other individuals: R. W. Brockett, E. J. Davison, Y.-C. Ho, P. Kokotovic, A. J. Laub, S. 1. Marcus, W. F. Powers, and S. S. Sastry. In early 1986, the organizers issued an open call for participation in the workshop that was published in the April issue of the IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE. in addition, more than 150 letters were sent to leaders in the field, inviting them to apply for participation in the workshop. The Steering Committee was also asked to identify individuals who could provide unique perspectives. The cut-off date for applications, that included a statement of proposed contribution, was May 31. In June, during the 1986 American Control Conference, the Steering Committee met for many hours to select the participants from the many applicants and to decide on the final structure of the program. One of the decisions was to invite all the Presidential Young Investigator awardees who had applied, another was to limit the total number of participants to fifty. In addition to the Steering Committee, the following persons attended and contributed to the deliberations: K. J. Astrom, M. Athans, D. Auslander, J. S. Baras, T. Basar, G. Blankenship, S. P. Boyd, A. E. Bryson, Jr., J. Burns, J. Cassidy, J. B. Cruz, D. F. Delchamps, C. A. Desoer, R. F. - Drenick, T. Edgar, J. S. Freudenberg, D. Gangsaas, J. Grizzle, A. H. Haddad, W. E. Hopkins, Jr., M. Ilí-Spong, P. loannou, T. L. Johnson, T. Kailath, A. J. Krener, R. E. Larson, W. S. Levine, J. L. Melsa, J. M. Mendel, G. Meyer, J. B. Pearson, H. E. Rauch, G. N. Saridis, J. L. Speyer, J. N. Tsitsiklis, P. Varaiya, G. C. Verghese, M. Vidyasagar, A. S. Willsky, and M. Wonham. The National Science Foundation was represented by Dr. M. P. Polis, Program Director of the Systems Theory and Operations Research Program, and by Dr. G. Hazelrig, Acting Program Director of the Instrumentation, Sensing, and Measurement Systems Program. The workshop was organized into plenary sessions and breakout sessions, during which Working Groups discussed and wrote the material that forms the basis of this report. Seven keynote talks addressed the main themes of the workshop: accomplishments in the past twenty five years and definition of important current and future research problems drawn from the needs of the industrial and service sectors of the economy. The Working Groups were structured so that, while discussions could take place with few constraints, written materials could be produced by the end of each session. To that effect, each group had one or two persons designated as recorders, with the primary responsibility of keeping notes during the discussion and assisting the group leaders in preparing the Working Group draft reports. In order to provide some focus in the deliberations of the Working Groups,eight persons were asked to prepare position statements based on their own perspectives. Seven of these position papers are being published concurrently in the April 1987 View full abstract»

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    Automatic Control and Electronics

    Chestnut, Harold
    Proceedings of the IRE

    Volume: 50 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/JRPROC.1962.288292
    Publication Year: 1962 , Page(s): 787 - 792

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The past fifty years have seen the automatic control and electronic fields come close together and form an effective means for increasing man's productivity and his ability to control energy and materials. By extending automatic control concepts to new processes, by developing more flexible controls capable of changing their characteristics to optimize performance of the process being controlled, and by increasing the capability of the sensing means in difficult environments, man will be able to make even more effective his ability to control automatically in the years ahead. Electronics is increasingly able to provide physical means for providing the realization of automatic control principles and concepts. Increasing effort to achieve reliable electronic automatic control means must be continued in the years ahead to make possible the realization of the promised gains indicated by the automatic control theory. In addition, more use should be made of standardized design ranges of electrical and mechanical features so that all automatic control equipment can be made in less time and at a lower relative cost. The future appears bright for expanded use of automatic control and electronics as we look ahead for the next fifty years of the IRE. View full abstract»

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    Nautical and aeronautical electronic charting/navigation systems evelopments, similarities and differences

    Theunissen, E. ; De Groot , C.A. ; Sabelis, H. ; Koeners, G.J.M.
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 2004. DASC 04. The 23rd

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/DASC.2004.1391320
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 4.C.1 - 41-12 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Patents (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Although already considered more than fifty years ago, the use of electronic displays to replace paper maps in the cockpit of commercial aircraft has commenced only recently, whereas displays that depict the planned route relative to ownship are already in use for over twenty years. In contrast, in the nautical community, the use of an electronic navigation chart to replace the paper chart is already a fact for several years, while the depiction of the planned route was added later. Given the differences between the nautical and the aeronautical domain, it is logical that on the surface many differences are apparent between the implementations of electronic map displays. However, a closer examination reveals that many design questions are the same. Also, current developments with respect to the further increase in data integration show similarities. Besides the emulation of the conventional paper chart, the availability of the data used to generate electronic charts will allow for new functions that support the operator with the navigation task. One example for the nautical environment is a tighter integration between the navigation task and the guidance and control task. At present, a research project at the Royal Netherlands Naval College is exploring the potential of some navigation data presentation concepts that were originally developed for aerospace navigation. When assessing the potential of a certain concept, one should always consider that every existing implementation is a trade-off which resulted from the technical limitations of the time it was designed. Therefore, it is important to understand why a certain design was selected and why others were rejected. To better understand how operational requirements and technical possibilities resulted in the current generation of electronic charting and navigation displays, the first part of this paper provides an overview of the developments in the area of electronic navigation, charting, and guidance displays. Important similarities and differences between the nautical and the aeronautical domain are identified and the underlying rationale will be discussed. For a tighter integration of the navigation task with the guidance and control task, the integration of routing data is needed. The generation of t- he route should take the information on the constraints which is available from the data used to depict the electronic chart into account. The last part of the paper will address new developments in the area of navigation, guidance and control displays and the integration with dynamic routing. View full abstract»

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    Overcoming eight drawbacks of the basic separation principl of state space control design

    Chia-Chi Tsui
    Control Conference (CCC), 2012 31st Chinese

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 213 - 218

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Separation principle implies that the state feedback control Kx(t) is designed assuming the system state x(t) is available. This principle has the following eight drawbacks. 1) The design of Kx(t)-control ignores the fact that a major effort, such as a separately designed observer, is needed to realize this control. 2) This design ignores the parameters of the realizing observer and the parameter C of the open loop system (A, B, C). 3) To guarantee the generation of such Kx(t) signal, a state observer is needed to generate all n elements of x(t), while the number of signals of Kx(t) is much less than n in non-trivial systems. 4) For most (A, B, C)'s, their state observers must have the feedback of system input, thus abandoning the well established output feedback compensator structure of classical control theory. 5) It is proven that for a practically designed Kx(t)-control, only an output feedback compensator can realize (if it can generate the signal Kx(t)) its loop transfer function and robustness properties. 6) The more important dynamic part is designed after the less important static output part, of the observer. 7) The only other existing basic form of control is static output feedback control KyCx(t), which is an extremely constrained Kx(t)-control (K must be linear combinations of only m rows of C). At the other extreme, no constraint is attached to the K of existing Kx(t)-control. 8) The order of KyCx(t)-control is fixed at zero, an extreme low, while the order of (state) observers of Kx(t)-control is fixed at least n-m, an extreme high. Each of these eight drawbacks is severe enough to demand a fundamental adjustment of separation principle of fifty years. This paper presents a simple and synthesized design approach that eliminates these drawbacks all at once. It is a scandal that this result is still little known to the control community. View full abstract»

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    Piezoelectric stack actuator life test

    Sherrit, S. ; Xiaoqi Bao ; Jones, C.M. ; Aldrich, J.B. ; Blodget, C.J. ; Moore, J.D. ; Carson, J.W. ; Goullioud, R. ; Jau, B.
    Aerospace Conference, 2011 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2011.5747384
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 8

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Future NASA interferometer missions require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. For this purpose, commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years and the nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the these missions were estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) mechanisms which were developed for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). At a nominal drive frequency of two hundred and fifty hertz one mission life is calculated to be 40 Billion cycles. In order to test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine the reliability and the redundancy requirements of these actuators a life test study was undertaken. In this study a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential actuator flight configuration (pre-stressed and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. The test flexures allowed for two stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated Lab-View control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 Volts at 2000Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test the primary stack was driven while the redundant stack was open circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge and the temperature and humidity in the chamber and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. In addition other properties of the stacks were measured at specific intervals. These measurements included the displacement from a Capacitance gap sensor and impedance spectra- - . The degradation in the stroke over the life test was found to be small (<;3%) for the primary stacks and estimated to be <;4% for the redundant stacks. It was noted that about half the stroke reduction occurred within the first 10 billion cycles. At the end of the life test it was found that by applying DC voltage levels (100 V) above the life test voltage we could initially recover about half of the lost stroke with again some degradation in the long term. The data up to 100 billion cycles for these tests and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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    History of the industrial production and technical development of single crystal cultured quartz

    Johnson, G.R.
    Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition, 2004. Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/FREQ.2004.1418426
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 35 - 45

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Quartz is an important part of the history of the frequency control industry over the last fifty years. Today, single crystal cultured quartz is the most widely used material in frequency control and ranks second only to silicon in the quantity of single crystal materials produced for all electronic applications. Several research groups around the world succeeded with projects to culture quartz beginning in the mid-1950's. The first commercial process for quartz growth was developed in 1956. Since then the growth and improved performance of frequency control components have related closely to the technical and commercial development of quartz. Quartz crystal production is concentrated in Japan, the USA, China and Russia. These geographic sectors have followed diverse paths to significantly different industry structures and technical focus. Miniaturization, improved performance, and lower cost are the main economic and technical factors influencing all stages of the electronics industry from material production to equipment distribution. The technical and commercial history of quartz is guided by these same drivers, resulting in advances to improve purity, lower inclusion density, and improve structural perfection, while lowering cost and expanding availability. These developments in the quartz growth industry have enabled frequency control component manufacturers to produce smaller, less expensive components, in huge volume, with improved performance. View full abstract»

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    An analysis of transient and sustained voltages in ground-fault neutralizer systems

    Farnham, S. B. ; Hunter, E. M. ; Peterson, H. A.
    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 60 , Issue: 12 , Part: Supplement
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1941.6434614
    Publication Year: 1941 , Page(s): 1257 - 1265

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    THE first ground-fault neutralizer (Petersen coil) in the United States was installed on the Alabama Power Company system in 1921. The technical press at that time devoted considerable attention to the substantial improvement in service continuity which was obtained with the neutralizer, and also described the overvoltages which occurred on the system during switching operations.1 Since this first application, more than fifty ground-fault neutralizers have been installed on systems in the United States in all voltage classes from 22 kv to 230 kv. Considering the total number of neutralizer-years of successful operating experience that have now been accumulated, it can therefore be stated that the ground-fault neutralizer has definitely proved its value as a service protective device, and that practical means have been found to eliminate the overvoltage troubles encountered in the first application. The very favorable operating record obtained to date indicates that ground-fault neutralizers may be expected to find increasingly widespread application in the future.2,3,4,5 The question of overvoltages, however, is still raised from time to time with reference to prospective applications of ground-fault neutralizers, presumably because of the attention which the overvoltage problem has received in the past,6,7,8,9,10 and it is felt that an analysis of the possible causes of and the means used to control overvoltages is in order. It is the specific purpose of this paper, therefore, to present data to indicate possible sources of overvoltages in ground-fault neutralizer systems, to point out the factors affecting the voltage magnitudes, and to show how the overvoltages are limited by present design and application practices. View full abstract»

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    The development of advanced control algorithms for BEMS

    Loveday, D.L. ; Cheung, J.Y.M. ; Virk, G.S.
    Control in Building Energy Management Systems, IEE Colloquium on

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2/1 - 2/4

    IET Conference Publications

    The adoption of direct digital control (DDC) methods in building energy management systems (BEMS) has become the widely-accepted norm for the control of building services systems. Energy savings have been achieved, but these are often the result of the consequential features offered by a BEMS-data logging, information retrieval/presentation, and simple trend plotting. These have given building operators a deeper insight into the behaviour of the building/plant/climate system than was ever before possible with the analogue control methods, and it is often this which has led to more energy-efficient system performance. There has been little change as regards the control laws utilised, however; the majority of current BEMS simply apply, in digital form, the well-known PID control method which had its origins over fifty years ago. Other fields, such as the aerospace industry and process control, have seen the successful implementation of more advanced techniques: these include optimal, robust, stochastic and predictive control. As yet, such advanced methods have not been used for practical building services control. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into the use of a stochastic predictive strategy for the control of the internal air temperature of a test cell View full abstract»

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    Safe Adaptive Control for Performance Improvement

    Jianlong Zhang ; Ioannou, P.A.
    Decision and Control, 2006 45th IEEE Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2006.377511
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1087 - 1092
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the past fifty years, adaptive control theory has reached a high level of maturity. However, applications of adaptive control in safety sensitive systems are still very limited. Conventional identifier based adaptive control may lead to poor transients during the learning process due to the conflict between parameter estimation and control. Their nonlinear nature makes it difficult to check stability and robustness bounds as done in the linear time invariant (LTI) case. As a result in applications where safety is at stake practitioners are reluctant to close the loop using an identifier based adaptive controller. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive controller, referred to as safe adaptive controller, which is composed of a supervisor and two candidate controllers. One candidate controller is a LTI model reference controller that can always guarantee system stability, while the other is a model reference adaptive controller that can tune its parameters to counteract the changes in the plant. The supervisor evaluates the performance of the two candidate controllers without using any plant model information and activates the candidate controller leading to better transient response. It is shown that the system stability is guaranteed as long as the non-adaptive candidate controller is stabilizing. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proposed safe adaptive controller is able to achieve better performance than the two candidate controllers View full abstract»

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    Digital Automatic Flight Control is the Answer - What is the Question?

    Boone, J.H. ; Flynn, G.R.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: AES-11 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/TAES.1975.307996
    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 862 - 882

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Beginning with process controls in the mid fifties, digital control systems have seldom met all the claimed advantages and in many cases have been outright failures. Airborne digital computers have just begun to appear in the commercial jet transport market after several years of experimental and military development. The success of these systems in meeting user expectations has not been overwhelming, which leads to the question: Why change from known analog flight control technology to digital? This paper examines that question by reviewing the state of the art in analog flight control system technology and evaluating this against current airline problems. A realistic means of evaluating claimed advantages for new technology is thus established. The advertised solutions of digital technology to analog problems are examined and, in some cases, debunked. However, consideration of the real problems and the capabilities of digital systems leads to the conclusion that there is a real payoff. Evidence from background studies at Boeing is offered to support this conclusion. A description of the digital flight control system electronics (FCSE) development program for the new Boeing 7×7 airplane is also provided. This program is currently in progress, and its specific objective is to assure that the real payoff is achieved for the subsequent production system. View full abstract»

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    Security technology


    Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 15 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/62.879436
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 131 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Security requirements and capabilities have changed dramatically over the past fifty years. Personal identification and detection of illegal substances including explosives have come to the forefront. With the proliferation of computers the security of information has also become a major concern. Substantial advances have been made over the last three decades in entry control, counter-terrorism, cryptology and airport protection. The utilization of technology has become an irreversible trend. Electronic devices and systems are capable of automatically and tirelessly monitoring and reporting breaches of security. For example, airport security began with physical protection of the facility with fences and area surveillance. The most recent concern is detecting explosives in both checked and early-on baggage, Other techniques relate to monitoring passengers for weapons as they transit the terminal building, especially crowds gathered at the metal detectors and X-ray machines. The application of electronics has produced reliability improvements and cost savings in systems that protect against unauthorized entry and numerous other threats. PCs have become the heart of security command and control systems. Most PC platforms rely on the proven software stability of Windows NT and present data in human-friendly, graphic format. It is expected that in the near future security monitoring will be consolidated in a central location, possibly to be integrated with other command and control functions View full abstract»

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    Models and Methods for Discovering Automatable Activity Segments in a Service-Oriented Environment

    Ramamoorthy, C.V.
    Tools with Artificial Intelligence, 2006. ICTAI '06. 18th IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICTAI.2006.88
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 243 - 246

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Although computers were invented in 1945, barely fifty years ago, their enormous value and impact on society has relegated much of computing discipline, fortunately or unfortunately, into a commodity status already. Not only are semiconductor-based computers inherently fast, the unique use of bootstrapping to use computers to design even faster computers has brought us to the precipitous edge of unprecedented computing performance and exceptionally powerful systems. As unintended consequences, while the pedagogical theories of computing have failed to keep pace with the rapid technological advances, of immense importance, a systematic approach to achieving reliable systems design despite complexity compounding on virtually daily basis, is sorely lacking. As a result, systems design is spinning out of control and urgently warrants a new approach to rein it in so that they may serve humanity in a safe and reliable manner. A quick analysis of the evolution of IBM Corporation is highly revealing of the challenges faced by the industry. IBM began its journey as a giant in computer hardware design including the legendary IBM 7044 and then quickly turned into a turn-key systems company with its proprietary operating system in the 1970s. By the late 1970s, the dawn of the VLSI age relegated computer hardware to the level of a commodity and IBM's desire to maintain a high profit margin forced it to turn to software as its core competency. The value of data and its manipulation became a dominant force in the marketplace and IBM emerged as a specialist in database-oriented products. Stiff competition from Oracle and other database vendors, and with the introduction of Microsoft's Access have steadily eroded IBM's cutting edge to the point where IBM is presently being forced to evolve into an entirely new company and a major player in the service industry View full abstract»

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