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    History of Electricity at the Smithsonian

    Finn, Bernard S. ; Molella, Arthur P.
    Education, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 27 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TE.1984.4321706
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 218 - 225

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The Division of Electricity at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History is the national repository for objects significant to the history of electrical science and technology. Although the Division has operated as a separate unit for less than three decades, activities at the Institution have contributed to the study of electrical history since the middle of the 19th century. This paper describes how collecting and exhibition policies have evolved; it also indicates how the artifacts, together with supporting documents and photographs, have supplied material for a variety of research projects. View full abstract»

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    In the Berkshires, Part 2: Stanley??s Early Work Expanded [History]

    Blalock, T.
    Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 10 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/MPE.2012.2203193
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 80 - 88

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Our examination of significant developments in the introduction and expansion of electric power in southern Berkshire County, Massachusetts, began in the July/August 2012 issue of this magazine. We now continue that discussion with an account of further important advances leading to the comprehensive electrification of all of western Massachusetts. View full abstract»

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    History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and western Denmark

    Lehtonen, M. ; Nye, S.
    Infrastructure Systems and Services: Building Networks for a Brighter Future (INFRA), 2008 First International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/INFRA.2008.5439615
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Providing distributed electricity within today's liberalized markets will require new innovations in intelligent IT-based network control. This paper draws on research on Large Technological Systems and control in other sectors in order to analyze the evolution of electricity network control in western Denmark and the UK during the post-War period. It concludes that network control has not yet been the kind of `reverse salient' preventing the development of the LTS. The western Danish example highlights the role of the `human factor' in control development, and the need for pragmatism in fostering innovation. Finally, while new intelligent control may help distribute risk more evenly among network participants, it may likewise produce new, systemic risks with unforeseeable impacts. View full abstract»

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    The evolution of Maxwell's equations through a brief critical examination of the history and background of the man and his times - Part 2

    Scully, B.
    Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 2 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MEMC.2013.6623302
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 83 - 86

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Maxwell's first published effort to describe electromagnetic phenomena was his paper "On Faraday's Lines of Force", published in 1855. In this first of four papers leading up to his Treatise, Maxwell opens his two-part presentation by stating in his introductory remarks that although much is known about the present state of electricity, areas still remain where knowledge is sparse and clear relationships have not been established. He goes on to say that it is necessary in any successful electrical theory to clearly show the connection between electricity at rest and current (moving) electricity, and the attractions and inductive effects of electricity in both states. Maxwell then asserts that in order to become familiar with the requirements of the science of electricity, one must become familiar with a large body of intricate mathematics, and that this in itself presents a significant hindrance to any progress. He goes on to express his desire to establish a method of investigation that would allow the grasp of a physical conception without creating a theory of the phenomena under study that relied on abstruse and purely analytical reasoning or that relied on a physical hypothesis before fully comprehending the various aspects of phenomena. Maxwell draws on his familiarity with Thomson's mathematical work to develop an analogical relationship between the flow of heat and the theory of action at a distance governed by an inverse square law. View full abstract»

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    Electricity in BrazilPart 2 [History]

    Magalhães, G. ; Tomiyoshi, L.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 17 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/MIAS.2011.940432
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 8 - 69

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The period following World War II (WWII) saw a considerable increase in demand for electrical power throughout Brazil, particularly in the industrialized states. After WWII, the regions of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro faced a serious shortage of electric energy. For many reasons, power companies did not meet this demand. The problems were pervasive: the depression years of the 1930s had seen a low investment in electrical generation; the international turmoil in manufacturing during WWII made it very difficult to import equipment. Power failures symbolized and reflected the exhaustion of the previous model of coexistence between a smaller local national capital and larger foreign companies. Together, these companies constituted isolated systems in terms of technique and planning, which resulted in the business being unable to meet an increase in demand that was beyond the ability or willingness to expand. View full abstract»

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    Electricity in Brazil-Part 1 [History]

    Hesla, E.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 17 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MIAS.2010.939808
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 8 - 12

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The history of electricity in Brazil is a history of interlocking political, social, and technical forces. Although there was a public debate about industrializing the country when Brazil declared its independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822 and Dom Pedro I abdicated the Portuguese throne to move to Brazil as the first emperor, the majority of the 19th century politicians and large landowners considered the absence of significant industry as a result of some natural order. God had endowed the country with an exuber ant nature that supported a strong agricultural economy with lucrative exports, especially sugar and cotton; exports could be traded for manufactured goods; industrialization was of little interest; and without industrialization, there was little demand for electrical power. However, times changed. Dom Pedro's son, Dom Pedro II, became the second emperor, and with him begins the history of electricity in Brazil. View full abstract»

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    Historical and theoretical approach of Europoean market: How does electricity investment decision evolve with historical context?

    Tehrani, B.S. ; Attias, D. ; De Lavergne, J.-G.D.
    European Energy Market (EEM), 2013 10th International Conference on the

    DOI: 10.1109/EEM.2013.6607340
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In a context of electricity market liberalization in Europe, this paper addresses the issue of investment in electricity generation capacities using a historical approach. Our purpose is to identify past drivers for investors' decisions on the European electricity market, regarding investments in power generation capacities, and understand how they evolved. We focus on France, in comparison with Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Italy. The considered period ranges from 1945 up to now. The analysis focuses on two major processes: the constitution of the generation mix (past investment choices), and the European market liberalization (economic context for today's investors). Major economic theories of the time are confronted to the decisions that were made, analyzing the existence of a gap between rational behavior described by the theory and actual behaviors of investors. In the end, the drivers identified as key are state policy, availability of the resource or technology, and market structure. View full abstract»

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    The Taguchi-neural networks approach to forecast electricity consumption

    Purwanto, D. ; Agustiawan, H. ; Romlie, M.F.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2008. CCECE 2008. Canadian Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2008.4564882
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 001941 - 001944
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Neural networks (NN) have been widely used for electricity forecasting, but some difficulties are still found. One of those difficulties is in choosing the optimal network parameter, which are strongly important to obtain accurate result. ldquoTrial and errorrdquo commonly used to set the parameter is ineffective in terms of processing time and the accuracy. In this paper, Taguchi method is employed to optimize the accuracy of NN based prediction. This hybrid approach results in the optimal network parameters. Those are: 1 for the history length, 1 day for sampling time, and 8 nodes for hidden neurons. The method is used to predict electricity consumption in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. From the preliminary results it is found that the combined method seems to be a convincing approach. View full abstract»

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    Electronics and medicine: When electroquackery thrived: The mystery and glamor of electricity were exploited by charlatans who bilked the public with promises to cure any ill

    Stillings, Dennis ; Roth, Nancy
    Spectrum, IEEE

    Volume: 15 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.1978.6367755
    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 56 - 61

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Electroquackery has a history all its own that is as long and colorful as that of legitimate electromedicine. But then, the difference between serious research and outright fraud has often been a little unclear. At a time when electricity was only beginning to be understood, fakers proposed devices that seemed no stranger to the general public than the proposed devices of legitimate researchers, and the theories of even the most extravagant charlatan could gain a ready following because they hardly seemed less believable than the phenomena they were supposed to explain. View full abstract»

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    Overhead line regulations

    Grimmitt, H.W.
    Proceedings of the IEE - Part II: Power Engineering

    Volume: 96 , Issue: 53
    DOI: 10.1049/pi-2.1949.0188
    Publication Year: 1949 , Page(s): 673 - 687

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The paper discusses the regulations relating to the design and practice of overhead-line construction, with particular reference to the Electricity Commissioners' Overhead Line Regulations. It gives a short history of the Commissioners' Regulations and the author's views on what would constitute a good code of regulations. The author traces the background of the existing regulations and examines the proposed revised code prepared by The Institution's Code of Practice Committee on Overhead Power Lines. The paper has been prepared primarily to elicit criticism of the Committee's proposals, in the hope that such criticism will be helpful when preparing the final draft. Attached to the paper are the present code El.C. 53 (1947 Revise) (Appendix 8.1) and the draft proposals of the Code of Practice Committee (Appendix 8.2). View full abstract»

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    Implementation of Dynamic Line Rating technique in a 130 kV regional network

    Talpur, Saifal ; Wallnerstrom, Carl Johan ; Hilber, Patrick ; Saqib, Shah Najmus
    Multi-Topic Conference (INMIC), 2014 IEEE 17th International

    DOI: 10.1109/INMIC.2014.7097387
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 477 - 482

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) to increase the existing power transmission capacity of overhead lines. The main contribution is to combine theoretical calculations and modeling with real application to conclude benefits of DLR. Both introduction of relevant theory and a case study on a power distribution system in Sweden are included. The concept of DLR implies that the capacity of a component dynamically varies as a function of external parameters, such as weather conditions and loading history. Traditionally, the rating is statically set from simulations of worst-case scenarios. Based on conventional static line rating (SLR) methods, the actual current carrying capability of overhead conductors is underestimated. When an increase in the line current capacity is needed, overhead lines may be rated based on a method that allows system operators to run the lines closer to their actual real-time capacity. Furthermore, the paper addresses the problems of observing safe ground clearance requirements. Knowing the conductor temperature, when it transmits the required electricity is an important factor to be taken into consideration. Therefore, based on real-time ambient conditions with actual line loading and with the help of IEEE-738-2006 standard, the conductor temperature is also calculated in this paper. Finally, an economic analysis is performed to evaluate the financial advantages of applying the dynamic line ratings approach compared to traditional static line ratings technique for a specific overhead conductor (VL3). View full abstract»

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    Harnessing marine energy by horizontal axis marine turbines

    Ali, J. ; Khan, J. ; Khalid, M.S. ; Mehmood, N.
    Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 2015 12th International Bhurban Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IBCAST.2015.7058548
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 495 - 502

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Almost 80% of World's energy needs are furnished through combustion of natural resources such as oil, natural gas and coal etc. A sprawling world population implies increased demand of the energy resources. Subsequently, there has been a hike in fuel prices. Unfortunately, the planet is left to bear the brunt in form of pollution. These factors have put forward a pressing demand of research for eco-friendly and renewable resources. In this domain, tidal energy offers a promising future. Tides are produced due to the interactive orbital mechanics of solar & planetary systems. Security, diversity of supply, intermittence and predictability are few of the compelling factors in pursuit of tidal power. Tidal energy comprises of both kinetic and potential energy. The tidal stream technologies include a horizontal axis turbine and a vertical axis turbine. This study is focused on horizontal axis turbines. The horizontal axis marine turbine operates on same principles as wind turbines. The energy transformation process is quite simple. The turbine rotor is driven by the tidal current. The motion of the rotor converts mechanical energy into rotational energy. Gear box transmits shaft's rotational energy to generator which converts this energy into electricity. Shroud/ ducts/ diffuser are used to improve the efficiency of the horizontal axis marine turbine. Shroud/ ducts/ diffuser deploy diffuser and hydrofoil principles to accelerate water streamline. Power generated is proportional to cube to steam velocity. This paper aims at presenting a comprehensive review of the horizontal axis marine turbines. The study will focus on history, techniques and technologies being deployed. The author also reports the current status of development efforts related to horizontal axis turbines. View full abstract»

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    Pearl Street in Miniature: Models of the Electric Generating Station [History]

    Sulzberger, C.
    Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 11 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MPE.2012.2233591
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 76 - 85

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The inspiration for this history article was supplied by Thomas J. Blalock, a frequent contributor of interesting and informative history articles to these pages. Recently, Tom sent me a photocopy of p. 459 of the 2 March 1929 issue of Electrical World. One of a number of short entries under "Briefer News" on the page was "New York Edison Makes Models of Old Pearl Street Station." The piece discussed three working scale models of Thomas Alva Edison's pioneering Pearl Street, Manhattan, central generating station. The models were built in the mechanical construction shops of the New York Edison Company, a direct predecessor of the present Consolidated Edison Company of New York (Con Edison). In the margin of the photocopy, Tom wrote the following note: "Carl, I wonder if any of these still exist?" Thus began my quest to locate any survivors of the three models built in the late 1920s. View full abstract»

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    WAMS and synchrophasor experience during synchronization of large grids in India

    Mukhopadhyay, Prithwish ; Seshadri, Pushpa ; Gangrekar, Chitranshi ; Kumar, Chandan ; Rai, Awani Bhushan ; Reddy, Naveen M.
    Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES), 2015 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPICES.2015.7091398
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Electricity grid interconnections have played a key role in the history of electric power systems for economic and optimum utilization of resources. Most national and regional power systems that exist today have begun many decades ago as isolated systems. In similar way, Indian grid has also evolved from state grid to regional grid and then their synchronization one after another. On 31st December 2013, the interconnection of NEW Grid and Southern grid in Indian power system has resulted in accomplishing the final stage of Indian grid synchronization. This synchronization was unique in the sense that operator at Regional and National control centre were able to monitor the each phase of synchronization with the help of synchrophasor measurements. This paper describes the experience of System operator gained from NEW-SR grid synchronization with the help of synchrophasor measurements. View full abstract»

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    Generation of electricity from the wind

    Warne, D.F. ; Calnan, P.G.
    Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of

    Volume: 124 , Issue: 11 , Part: R
    DOI: 10.1049/piee.1977.0229
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 963 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The review paper traces the history of wind-driven plant from a point when it was first considered for electricity generation in about 1890. The build up of a significant level of available technology for large-scale exploitation is demonstrated, based on research and development that has since taken place, together with some of the concurrent commercial achievements. Plant subsystem design options interact with each other and affect performance and costs. These options are discussed, and the costs, costing methods and competitiveness of large wind generators now at, or soon to reach, the stage of conception or design, are examined. Such practical considerations must be based on an understanding of the nature of wind and of the theories affecting its capture by various devices. This leads to the important aspects of what constitutes the most favourable site, success being principally, and sensitively, dependent upon the general level of available winds. Also important is the range of applications that can be advantageously wind powered, and the technical procedures (and problems if any) associated with each of them. The paper includes an account of the scope of current activities of any size or special interest in several countries, and projects a future worldwide role for wind generation linked to needs, winds and technical innovations. View full abstract»

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    Microgeneration in Portugal EDP experience and future perspectives

    Goncalves, Rui Miguel Pires
    Electricity Distribution - Part 2, 2009. CIRED 2009. The 20th International Conference and Exhibition on

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1

    IET Conference Publications

    Independent generation has a long history in Portugal. Nevertheless the legal framework for licensing and interconnection was the same for a generator of 1kW and for a 50MW power station. In 2008, DL 363 entered in force and it was specifically aimed for microgeneration: (1) Easy internet registration; (2) Simplified licence; (3) Standard equipment; (4) Up to 3.68kW, initial tariff of 650€/MWh for Photovoltaic (PV) panels, 455€/MWh for wind turbines, decreasing with total microgeneration installed; (5) Total of 10MW allowed during 2008, increasing 20% each year. This new framework got a very enthusiastic response, with all capacity registered. View full abstract»

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    Machine Learning for Classifying Learning Objects

    Ranganathan, G.R. ; Biletskiy, Y. ; MacIsaac, D.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006. CCECE '06. Canadian Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2006.277704
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 280 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Building an ontology for learning objects can be useful for translating such objects between learning contexts. Such translations are important because they afford learners and educators with the opportunity to a survey a wide selection of learning and teaching material. For instance, university instructors are sometimes required to assess curriculum from courses delivered from other programs or universities, even internationally. Often, the only learning object available to do so is the course outline made available in HTML format on a Web page. Generally there is an abundance of metadata available from such learning objects and this information can be used to generate useful components of the ontology. Other useful information can be derived from first establishing the domain of the object, electricity and computing for instance, or possibly history. Once extracted, the information representing learning objects can be stored as elements in an XML template. The purpose of this work was to develop and implement a machine learning strategy for classifying course outlines into pre-defined domains and sub-domains in order to provide this information to an ontology repository designed to aid in the translation of such objects. First some typical domains were identified. Then, 20-30 course outlines were chosen to represent each sub-domain. Next, frequency tables of words common to the course outlines for a given sub-domain were generated in order to compile an ordered list of synonyms used to represent the sub-domains. Finally, a new set of course outlines were randomly selected for classification based on an analysis of the synonym content of each. Establishing the frequency tables and completing the synonym analysis was automated completely thereby constituting the machine learning strategy View full abstract»

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    The selenium cell: its properties and applications

    Barnard, George P.
    Electrical Engineers, Journal of the Institution of

    Volume: 67 , Issue: 384
    DOI: 10.1049/jiee-1.1928.0196
    Publication Year: 1928
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The preliminary section of the paper deals with the early history of research on selenium, and its sensitivity to light. In Section 1, dealing with the construction of selenium cells, different types of cells are enumerated and described. It is emphasized that the cell must have little inertia to light-changes, and for this reason the selenium layer must be thin so that as much as possible is affected by the light. The properties of selenium cells are dealt with in Section 2. The author's experiments have shown that the change in conductance G (due to a given illumination E) varies as some power of the illumination E, i.e. G ? Ex. The index value x varies from type to type of cell, and even amongst cells of the same type small variations in x occur. Thus no two cells, even of the same type, have in general exactly the same quantitative reaction towards a given illumination. It is shown, however, that these empirical relations are quantitatively reproducible to a high degree of accuracy, provided the experimental conditions are reproduced. A brief r?sum? of the many factors influencing the conductance of a selenium cell is followed in each case by the results of recently published research. Some experiments by the author on the decay of the conductance of selenium after exposure to illumination show that the internal state of the selenium, as determined by the change in conductance, is, throughout a large portion of the visible spectrum, independent of the quality of the stimulus. Some filter experiments are described, from which it appears that the change in conductance of selenium cells is dependent, not on the number of foot-candles incident on the cell, but rather on the amount of radiant energy received. Section 2 concludes with a short note on the properties of selenium crystals. The chemical, electrolytic and electronic theories of the action of light on selenium are reviewed in Section 3. The recent researches of Gudden and Pohl suggest a return to the physi- co-chemical theory. It appears that the problem of explaining the observed phenomena is not one of photo-electricity but rather of conductivity in non-homogeneous media containing a large number of bounding crystal surfaces. In Section 4 the practical applications of selenium cells are described in some detail under the following headings:? (a) Application of the selenium cell to photometry, and to relay problems. (b) The Optophone. (c) The Photophone. (d) The talking film. (e) Television. The conclusion sums up the present state of our knowledge of the action of light on selenium. View full abstract»

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    Atomic Power: Fallacies and Facts

    Ackerman, A.J.
    Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: AES-8 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/TAES.1972.309570
    Publication Year: 1972 , Page(s): 576 - 582
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The first demonstration of atomic fission occurred in a laboratory thirty years ago (December 2, 1942). The first electricity from an experimental atomic power plant in the United States was produced fifteen years ago (December 18, 1957). Less than a dozen atomic power plants of significant size have been completed and started operating within the past five years; their brief record of operating experiences is grossly inadequate as a basis for responsible engineering (with absolute safety) and for committing large future investments in this new technology. However, in the utility industry, corporate wisdom and good judgment at the Board of Director level has been perverted by massive campaigns of overselling, irresponsible propaganda, and deliberate deception. This paper identifies some of the more common fallacies. View full abstract»

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    Empirical Analysis of the Impact of 2003 Blackout on Security Values of U.S. Utilities and Electrical Equipment Manufacturing Firms

    Sung-Kwan Joo ; Jang-Chul Kim ; Chen-Ching Liu
    Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 22 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2007.901278
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1012 - 1018
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    On August 14, 2003, the U.S. faced the largest blackout in history, which left over 50 million people without electricity in eight U.S. states and part of Canada. This paper investigates the effects of the blackout on the security values of the U.S. electric utilities and manufacturing firms in the electric power equipment industry, using an event study method. The results of this empirical study show that the electric utilities were negatively affected, but the electrical equipment manufacturing firms were significantly, positively affected. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    High-order adaptive model to forecast regional electricity loads

    Yao-Hsien Chen ; Jing-Wei Liu ; Chin-Hsue Cheng
    Machine Learning and Cybernetics, 2008 International Conference on

    Volume: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/ICMLC.2008.4620971
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3277 - 3282

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Over the past few years, a considerable number of studies have been proposed on load forecasting. This paper aims at proposing a promising model using high-order adaptive fuzzy time-series algorithm to get more efficient forecasting. From the reviewed literature related to fuzzy time-series, there are two points need to be concerned. The first is to determine a reasonable universe of discourse and the length of intervals, and the second is many researchers ignore the information of trend patterns change in the past history. Hence, this paper utilized the trend weighted and high order adaptive model to deal with above drawbacks. The proposed model is applied for forecasting the regional electricity load in Taiwan. The experiment results showed that the proposed model outperforms the listing methods under MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) criteria. View full abstract»

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    EDF customized approach of power quality, an opportunity to meet customer's expectations

    Degand, C. ; Fauquembergue, P. ; Regnier, M. ; Levillain, C. ; Serres, E.
    Harmonics and Quality of Power Proceedings, 1998. Proceedings. 8th International Conference On

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/ICHQP.1998.759884
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 190 - 196 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The emerging electricity market in Europe has accelerated the move towards the customer with its emphasis on his needs. In that “new” competitive world, is power quality, known to be needed, still a prior concern and how will utilities deal with it ? This paper presents EDF's policy in that matter. The history of power quality policy shows that, after a period devoted to nationwide improvements, EDF turned to more customized approaches. Regular surveys are conducted and used both for marketing studies and for measuring the effectiveness of the policy. Services have gone a step forward with custom power, as described in the experiment. In the future, power quality contracts might become more risk-management oriented. “Electricity as a product” is evolving to a complex combination of systems. The organization of the electric field has an impact on the sharing of responsibilities about delivered power quality. These responsibilities shares will have to be formalized View full abstract»

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    The history of photovoltaic industry pricing and future direction in a low incentive environment

    Mints, Paula
    Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Volume 2, 2012 IEEE 38th

    DOI: 10.1109/PVSC-Vol2.2012.6656706
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Pricing has historically been the most consistently misunderstood metric of the PV industry, specifically, it is typically inappropriately correlated with manufacturing costs or expected to behave perfectly within a theoretical context. For PV, and other products and technologies with similar pressures, the price function is highly correlated with the market and market behavior and less so with manufacturing cost. The primary reason for the imperfect correlation with costs is that demand in the photovoltaic industry remains incentive or subsidy driven. Demand for photovoltaic systems (specifically, into the grid-connected application) softens when incentives are not in place. Other aspects effecting pricing in the PV industry include aggressive pricing for share, high levels of inventory, high levels of manufacturing capacity, less expensive substitutes, lack of investor funding and to a lesser degree the cost of consumables and raw materials. Pricing behavior is reactive to market forces and related to costs only in ideal situations. Along with energy efficiency, conventional energy technologies (sources) are the chief competitors for the photovoltaic industry. Not only is the electricity generated by conventional sources a commodity, these energy sources enjoy significant subsidies. Pricing for photovoltaic products, therefore, is forced to compete one-to-one with sources that enjoy subsidies without similar pressure to compete without them. Unfortunately, when incentives are designed to stimulate demand for photovoltaic (solar) products, it is assumed that price will descend in an orderly fashion related closely with the cost of producing the technology. This dangerous assumption, along with a lack of understanding of PV industry behavior has helped to encourage disruptive behavior, including aggressive and/or defensive pricing. The photovoltaic industry is hence judged primarily on the price of the electricity generating component, the module, and not of the qu- lity of the electricity, which is both clean and reliable. This paper will offer a history of PV industry module pricing from 1974 through to 2012, with a five year pricing forecast. Pricing history will be broken to periods during which industry behavior can be identified and analyzed. The current period, 2009 through the forecast period, will highlight and analyze aggressive pricing for share (also a component of the 2000 through 2003 period of industry history), against the backdrop of decreasing incentives, historically high levels of manufacturing capacity, high levels of inventory and the return of low to negative margins for PV manufacturers. Also explored will be the effect of this pricing on other solar technologies (CSP and CPV). The methodology used for this paper is classic market research, relying on primary research of the supply and demand sides of the PV industry along with the CSP and CPV industries. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Foreword for the Special Section on Wind and Solar Energy: Uncovering and Accommodating Their Impacts on Electricity Markets

    Pinson, P. ; O'Malley, M.
    Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 30 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2414722
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1557 - 1559

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Spatial and temporal distribution of disaster events in mountainous townships of Taiwan

    Chien-Yuan Chen ; Jui-Tang Chiang
    Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2013 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.2013.6723625
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 3666 - 3669

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan on 8 August 2009, bringing heavy rainfall. The typhoon caused 677 deaths with a further 22 missing. It cut water supplies to 769,159 households, electric power to 1,595,419 households, and communications to 22,221 households [1]. The typhoon, combined with south-western winds, brought heavy rainfall concentrated in southern Taiwan. The typhoon caused the most serious flood hazards in the recorded history of Taiwan. The highest rainfall recorded was 3,060 mm at the Alishan station in Chiayi County in southern Taiwan [2]. In the study area of Chiayi County, this abnormally heavy rainfall led to 10 deaths with a further two missing, electricity outages for 11,300 buildings, hydraulic structures damaged in 30 places, roads damaged in 25 places, and 206 villages inundated by floods, landslides, and debris flows in over 700 locations, 22 bridges out and 4 damaged, and estimated agricultural losses reaching NT$26 billion [3]. View full abstract»

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