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    Electrical engineering calculations [History]

    Powell, L. ; Hesla, E.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 15 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/MIAS.2009.934445
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 8 - 11

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Engineers can calculate short circuit currents with their laptop (and even palmtop) computers. Not only do these tools calculate currents far more quickly and with greater precision and accuracy than the methods used in the past, but they also have the ability to immediately evaluate the application of specific circuit breakers and evaluate the arc-flash energy released at the point of fault. But to truly appreciate these modern tools, we have to appreciate the fascinating history of this most simple of all electrical engineering calculations. This paper discusses the history of short-circuit calculations. View full abstract»

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    Parameter study of load combinations in seismic design for UHV transformation devices

    Lu Zhicheng ; Dai Zebing ; Zhu Zhubing
    Power System Technology (POWERCON), 2010 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/POWERCON.2010.5666551
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    For UHV electrical devices, owing to their importance, uniqueness, and relatively high safety margin requirements, their seismic performance has become the focus of engineer's attention. Such devices are prone to generate resonance under the effects of earthquake, which will lead to damage to them. Moreover, most of the major devices have exceed the application scope of seismic design criteria, and values of related parameters of seismic design are different based on different criteria. Therefore, it is necessary that study on relevant problems existing in the seismic design of UHV transformation devices is carried out. In this study, the related clauses in Code for seismic design of buildings (GB50011-2001), Code for design of seismic of electrical installations (GB50260-96) and IEEE Recommended Practice for Seismic Design of Substations (IEEE Std 693) were compared and analyzed, and at the same time, the parameters of load combinations in the seismic design (i.e. every subentry coefficient and safety coefficient) were studied. With the device of some UHV project taken as an example of project study, a practical calculation method that could be applied to analysis of earthquake resistance of UHV transformation devices was proposed, and the analysis result could be referred by related professional personnel. View full abstract»

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    Submarine Cable Telegraphy

    Milnor, J.Willard
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XLI
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1922.5060759
    Publication Year: 1922 , Page(s): 20 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The history of the development of the subject is first outlined, and methods of operation of cables are described. The technical side is introduced with a statement of the various conditions whi h limit operation of cables, and a general method of analysis is developed, based upon an extension of ordinary alternating-current theory. The theory is made use of to analyze the action of cable types and of apparatus which at this time can be regarded as standard. The fundamental theory of the method of analysis, with information on the calculation of transients in electrical circuits, is given in the Appendix. View full abstract»

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    Instantaneous wave number based structural damage detection

    Dong Yinfeng ; Li Xupeng ; Jiang Fan
    Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICECENG.2011.6058465
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 5299 - 5301

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A method based on instantaneous wave number is proposed for structural damage detection, which is designated to describe the change of structural dynamic properties with time caused by damage. Based on the wave theory, the derivation of wave number is introduced first. Then, the method for modal parameter identification and instantaneous wave number calculation using time-varying vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model is depicted. Finally, the instantaneous wave number is used as the index to identify the damage of structures. Analysis results of an actual structure show that the occurrence and developing process of structural damages can be precisely identified using this index, as well, the severity of damage can be indicated exactly by spikes of instantaneous wave number. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    1884-1984: A Century of Electrical Progress


    Micro, IEEE

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MM.1984.291306
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 23

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    On a possible division by zero in the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter

    Sigalov, D. ; Oshman, Y.
    Electrical & Electronics Engineers in Israel (IEEEI), 2014 IEEE 28th Convention of

    DOI: 10.1109/EEEI.2014.7005806
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) is arguably the most successful approximation algorithm to the conditional expectation in jump linear systems. One of the key steps of the algorithm is the computation of the mixing probabilities which are used to define refined initial conditions for the different Kalman filters comprising the IMM. This calculation is based on a straightforward application of Bayes rule and involves a division by the probability of the current mode conditioned on the measurement history. While in typical applications this probability never vanishes, there are situations in which this is not necessarily the case. Consequently, direct, blind application of the IMM is impossible due to the potential division by zero. We investigate the reasons for the potential division by zero, analyze the causes and propose a simple solution to avoid such situation without modifying the original algorithm flow. View full abstract»

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    New method for improving the reliability of dissolved gas analysis

    Nemeth, B. ; Voros, C. ; Cselko, R. ; Gocsei, G.
    Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), 2011 Annual Report Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CEIDP.2011.6232655
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 296 - 301

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The diagnostic methods and the dissolved gas analysing standards or regulations generally are based on experts practical and experimental knowledge while detecting and evaluating the faults. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is a widely used technique to estimate the condition of oil-immersed transformers. The measurement of the level and the change of combustible gases in the insulating oil is a trustworthy diagnostic tool which can be used as indicator of undesirable events occurring inside the transformer. There are standards available for this purpose the DGA interpretation should also be based on other information about the reliable particular transformer. This paper describes a realistic method for power transformers using readily available data. The method considers practical limitations on obtaining data and possible constraints on the parameters utilize IEC, IEEE, CIGRE criteria. The calculation considers no t only typical test results but also other parameters such as physical observations, tap changer and bushing condition, load history, maintenance work orders, age, trends of the transformer failures etc. The calculation includes condition ratings, weighting factors, and assigned scores for specific condition parameters by using fuzzy logic. A neural network using the DGA results is applied to achieve the initial conclusion firstly. Then, several fuzzy equations are established to realize the detailed diagnosis. As many sorts of data and relevant DGA information are selected in different fuzzy equations, which cause that the accuracy of the detailed diagnosis will be higher. Today, in modern electricity system it is very important for the equipments to have a modern expert system with suitable efficiency so the past record is also taken into consideration during the diagnosing. The DGA expert system improved aggregates 5 diagnostic methods and prepares the classification of t he equipment based on the measured state markers/features. The evaluation of the si- gle diagnostic procedures is based on the fuzzy logic. As a result the diagnoses provided by the investigational results can be precised, so the lifetime and the cost effectiveness is increasable. This paper illustrate the advantages of diagnosing with the fuzzy logic compared to the procedures with normal evaluation for international results and Hungarian transformer examples. View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    Problems in design and operation of very large electrical generating systems

    Steinmetz, C.P.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the

    Volume: 29 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1109/PAIEE.1910.6660598
    Publication Year: 1910 , Page(s): 7 - 8

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Performance assessment without pyranometers: Predicting energy output based on historical correlation

    Golnas, A. ; Bryan, J. ; Wimbrow, R. ; Hansen, C. ; Voss, S.
    Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2011 37th IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2011.6186347
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 002006 - 002010
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Estimating the energy that should be generated by a PV system under the prevailing conditions of irradiance and temperature is very important for system or fleet investors, energy customers, and operators. Traditionally this has been achieved by measuring irradiance and temperature in the proximity of the PV array in order to calculate the expected energy output either by using an appropriate model or by making assumptions about the system's Performance Ratio. However, this method requires the accurate installation, maintenance, and continuous monitoring of sensors thereby increasing the system's capital and maintenance costs. In this work we present an alternative methodology which can calculate the expected output of one or more systems in a regional fleet based on the measured power output from a subset of the total fleet. This can be achieved thanks to high accuracy energy measurements and the ability to correlate historical performance records. View full abstract»

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    Calculation of Slot Constants

    Puchstein, A.F.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: 66 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1947.5059577
    Publication Year: 1947 , Page(s): 1315 - 1323
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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    Clinton R. Hanna 1955 Lamme medalist: History of the medal

    Pilliod, J. J.
    Electrical Engineering

    Volume: 75 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1109/EE.1956.6442070
    Publication Year: 1956 , Page(s): 706

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Dr. Hanna of the Westinghouse Laboratories, Pittsburgh, Pa., has been awarded the 1955 Lamme Medal “… for his fundamental calculations and developments in the field of electrodynamics and particularly for his achievements in the design of generator voltage regulators, automatic rolling mill controls, and tank gun stabilizers.” View full abstract»

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    Monte Carlo Computer Calculation of Transmission-Line Lightning Performance

    Anderson, J.G.
    Power Apparatus and Systems, Part III. Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers

    Volume: 80 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/AIEEPAS.1961.4501060
    Publication Year: 1961 , Page(s): 414 - 419
    Cited by:  Papers (39)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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    Calculation of full-wave S-matrices of monoaxially uniform (2D) elements in rectangular waveguides

    Vasileva, T. ; Kirilenko, A. ; Rud, L. ; Tlachenko, V.
    Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory, 1998. MMET 98. 1998 International Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MMET.1998.709990
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 399 - 401 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Discontinuities that are uniform along one of the transversal axes form a wide class of conventional elements of rectangular waveguides: H- and E-plane bends and steps, H- and E-plane tees and cross-junctions, and so on. On the other hand, their mathematical models in the S-matrix form are often used in the calculation of more complicated discontinuities, in particular 3D ones. There is another reason to consider such a class of elements in the calculation of full-wave S-matrices as a special group, but not as a particular case of corresponding 3D structures. The concern is that the 3D boundary-value problems for such structures may be reduced to a set of 2D ones. The investigation of the latter has a long history and there are sophisticated methods for solving such problems that take into account geometrical peculiarities and are much more efficient than general methods usually used for the analysis of 3D discontinuities. It is a well known fact that in the case of 2D structures the residue-calculus method is the most efficient one for waveguide steps, method of inversion of the difference part of the matrix operators is used for H-plane angled bends, standard mode-matching procedures are the best for 90° waveguide crosses, moment methods that take into account field singularities are well tailored for waveguide bifurcations, steps and other discontinuities, etc. In view of these reasons, in the development of modelling software based on the matrix technique, it makes sense to devise a special tool that produces full-wave S-matrices of the structures of interest by using well-known algorithms for a solution of corresponding scalar problems View full abstract»

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    A Method for the Calculation of an Apparent Time Invarying Inductance for an Iron Core Inductor

    Schwarz, Francisc C. ; Klaassens, J.B. ; Heus, Robert W.
    Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: IECI-25 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TIECI.1978.351520
    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 117 - 125

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A method for measurement of the instantaneous inductance L(t) of an iron core inductor is presented as a function of the inductor current i, the rate of change di/dt of this current, and the past history of the iron core at that moment. The inductance of a filter inductor is shown as a function of unidirectional continuous and discontinous currents. The concept of an equivalent time invarying inductance Leq is formulated for the purpose of piecewise linear time-domain analysis of switching networks, and a method for its calculation is indicated. The usefulness of this new tool of analysis is confirmed by agreement of calculated and experimentally obtained data. View full abstract»

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    Equipment health rating of power transformers

    Dominelli, N.
    Electrical Insulation, 2004. Conference Record of the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ELINSL.2004.1380501
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 163 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Transformers are major components of the power delivery system. In North America, a large proportion of them are approaching their end of design life and in need of replacement or refurbishment A program has been developed to assist engineers to diagnose and assess the health of power transformers. The program uses test and inspection data and equipment information such as nameplate, known design problems, operating history, and age to determine the equipment's health rating. The program calculates condition indexes of transformer components then combines them into an equipment health rating. Although the program automatically calculates such values, it also allows for experts to provide diagnostics and make recommendation on intervention, and to review all the final rating . The results can be used to quickly assess equipment health and provide comparison within a substation or the entire utility for asset management. Examples and case histories are used to show the merits and applications of the program for BC Hydro's system. View full abstract»

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    The reasonableness of vibration equation being used to solve wave equation

    Changqing, Li ; Yu Zhiwu ; Jiang LiZhong
    Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICECENG.2011.6058296
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 6169 - 6172

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The solution of longitudinal wave of a column through vibration equation taken as an example, the vibration equation was proved to converge to wave equation when the discrete spatial size converges to be infinitesimal. Concept of calculation wave velocity was proposed. Wave's propagation could be seen in the vibration's solution obtained with central difference method when calculation wave velocity equal to physical wave velocity. The physical meaning of stability requirement of central difference method was revealed, that is, calculation wave velocity must be equal to or greater than physical wave velocity. View full abstract»

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    Electricity the Future Power for Steering Vessels

    Hibbard, H. L.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XXXIII , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1914.4765149
    Publication Year: 1914 , Page(s): 619 - 657

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Electrical development in the marine field has been confined in a large measure to the navy, and the best experience with electric steering gears has been obtained from navy installations. Up to the present time steam has been the universal power for operating steering gears, but certain disadvantages are in-herent in this system which can be overcome by the electric drive, and additional advantages obtained. The history of electric gears shows that many different schemes have been tried and proved failures owing to faulty designs and imperfectly developed apparatus. At present several different systems are in successful operation. To obtain full benefit of the advantages possible from an electric drive, much depends on the selection of apparatus with characteristics best suited to the work. The problem of electric drive is largely one of control. The calculations for rudder and motor horse powers must be carefully made, with the proper assumptions for the conditions presented. Several installations in the navy have shown excellent results; in the case of the battleship Texas the data obtained show preliminary calculations were quite accurate. Results obtained seem to justify the prediction that electric steering gears will be used quite generally in the future. View full abstract»

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    Calculation of stray load losses

    Rockwood, G.H.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XLVI
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1927.5061452
    Publication Year: 1927 , Page(s): 1139 - 1147
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Early in the history of the development of the alternating current (AC) generator it was recognized that there might be losses present under load conditions in addition to the no-load losses and the armature copper loss due to load current. Because no one had a satisfactory means of measuring this loss it was not included in the early definitions of conventional efficiency. In 1913 papers were presented giving the results of carefully made input - output tests which tended to show that the entire loss on sustained polyphase short circuit should be taken as a measure of the stray load loss for the salient pole alternator. This rule has remained in force and in view of its general acceptance it is to the interest of designers of salient pole alternators to be able to predetermine this loss. It is the purpose of thispaper to present some general methods of attacking the problem. It is not intended that the results should be complete but they are presented simply as a starting point for the attack on this problem. Instead of trying to develop a single formula for the short circuit core loss, it is desirable to separate the total loss into distinct parts and develop. formulas for each of these parts separately. The parts into which it is most conveniently divided are: 1. An eddy current loss in the armature copper. 2. A loss in the stator iron. 3. A pole face loss. 4. An end loss. 5. A loss in the amortisseur winding. These component parts will be discussed in turn. View full abstract»

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    Image resizing using improved seam merging

    Mishiba, K. ; Ikehara, M.
    Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2012 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICASSP.2012.6288118
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1261 - 1264

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, we propose the improved seam merging method for content-aware image resizing. This method merges a two-pixel-width seam element into one new pixel in image reduction and inserts a new pixel between the two pixels in image enlargement. To preserve important contents and structure, our method uses importance and structure energies. Using the cartoon image of an original image for calculation of structure energy, our method can preserve main structure. In addition, we introduce new energy to suppress distortion generated by excessive reduction or enlargement in the iterative merging or inserting. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can produce satisfactory results in both image reduction and enlargement. View full abstract»

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    The realizations of fast wavelet transform algorithms based on DSP

    Guo Jichang ; Liu Yan ; Li Xiangping ; Li Qiang ; Zhang Yaqi
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2003. IEEE CCECE 2003. Canadian Conference on

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2003.1226309
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2005 - 2008 vol.3

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wavelet transform is an important branch as a new theory in the history of mathematics. It is a signal analyzing and processing method in time-frequency domain, and has an excellent local character in time domain and frequency domain. Wavelet transform has led to many new wavelets applications in various fields such as signal detection, signal processing and image processing, and the hardware realization of wavelet transform algorithms receives more and more recognition. This paper introduces the principle of fast wavelet transform and the realizing method in DSP. The DSP instructions such as parallel multiply-accumulate instruction, circular addressing and repeating operation in TMS320C3X of, which are suitable to realize the wavelet algorithms, are described in detail. A framework of assemble language program for the calculation of scale expanding value is given out and the problem which should be paid attention to in the fast wavelet algorithms using DSP is discussed specially. View full abstract»

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    The electrical century. What difference did semiconductors and microelectronics make?

    Morton, D.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 87 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/5.763320
    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1049 - 1052

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This year, according to one historian's calculations, the transistor turns 52 years old, the integrated circuit 41 years, and the microprocessor 28. While the exact birth dates for these technologies are hotly contested by various inventors, one fact is clear: microelectronics has an undeniable significance today. The making of electronic components is a major industry worldwide, and the range of products incorporating microelectronics seems to expand every day. The transistor and its successor, the integrated circuit, were radical developments that became part of revolutionary new technologies, but it is also true that each of them emerged within the context of ongoing research and commercialization stretching back at least to the 1930's. Like so many new technologies, microelectronics extended and enhanced trends that were already well established and at the same time opened doorways to entirely new opportunities View full abstract»

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    Graphical Determination of Magnetic Fields Theoretical Considerations

    Stevenson, A.R. ; Park, R.H.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XLVI
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1927.5061344
    Publication Year: 1927 , Page(s): 112 - 135
    Cited by:  Papers (20)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Three papers on the general subject, ``Graphical Determination of Magnetic Fields,'' are being presented simultaneously to cover three phases of the subject: 1. Theoretical Considerations, 2. Comparison of Calculations and Tests, by E. E. Johnson and C. H. Green, 3. Practical Applications to Salient-Pole Synchronous Machine Design, by R. W. Wieseman. In the following paper, which is the first of this series, the authors have reviewed the history of the subject, hare briefly stated the ordinary rules for plotting magnetic flux in air and in current-carrying copper, have developed additional rules for checking the accuracy of field plots, and have given theoretical methods for mathematically calculating the distribution of field in certain cases commonly encountered in practise. The authors have called attention to the great value of the mathmatical work by the German engineer, Rogowski, and the graphical methods by the French engineer, Lehmann. These German and French articles contain the only extensive practical applications of the plotting of magnetic fields in current-carrying regions with which the present authors are familiar. Since it is much more difficult to plot fields in current-carrying regions, and since the majority of readers are less familiar with this phase of the subject, the greater part of the first paper, ``Theoretical Considerations,'' is devoted to a study of such fields. View full abstract»

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    Modification of the Perrine–Baum Diagram to Improve the Calculation of High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    Horta-Bernus, R. ; Rosas-Casals, M.
    Education, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 56 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TE.2012.2215861
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 274 - 279

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Throughout the history of electrical engineering education, vector and phasor diagrams have been used as a fundamental learning tool. Currently, computational power has replaced these with long data lists, the result of solving equation systems with numerical methods. In this sense, diagrams have been relegated to an academic background topic that, although theoretically explained, is not used in practice. This fact may work against the understanding of the complex behavior of electrical power systems by students. This paper proposes a modification of the classic Perrine-Baum diagram construction to allow both a more practical representation and a better understanding of the behavior of a high-voltage transmission line under different load levels. A tool capable of evaluating the moment in time when demand exceeds the line's carrying capacity is also introduced. In addition, the impact of this tool on the learning process is evaluated. View full abstract»

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    Theory and Calculation of the Squirrel Cage Repulsion Motor

    West, H.R.
    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Transactions of the

    Volume: XLIII
    DOI: 10.1109/T-AIEE.1924.5061060
    Publication Year: 1924 , Page(s): 1048 - 1057
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A brief history of the development of the squirrel cage repulsion motor and a physical explanation of the principles of its operation have been given in the preceding paper ``A New Type of Single Phase Motor'' by Mr. S. R. Bergman. It is the purpose of the present paper to give the results of an analytical study of the operation of the motor. The derivation of the method of calculation is outlined and some of the more interesting results are given. View full abstract»

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    Mutual influencing analysis of seismic response of underground and above ground frame structures

    Liu Qianwen
    Transportation, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering (TMEE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/TMEE.2011.6199194
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 267 - 270

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the development of subway construction in China, the scale of exploitation and utilization of underground space is becoming more and more larger. The dynamic characteristics of soil-above ground structure must be changed with the existence of underground structure, and therefore, the seismic ability of above ground structures will be influenced. The calculation models for soil-underground frame structure-above ground structure interaction system are established based on finite element method. The mutual influencing on seismic response of underground structure and above ground structure are calculated and analyzed. The analysis showed that above ground frame structure has little influence on the seismic response of underground structure, while the underground structure has great influence on the seismic of above ground structure. The results in the paper can provide references for the seismic design of underground and above ground structures. View full abstract»

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