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    Early development of the incandescent lamp

    Furfari, F.A.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 12 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MIA.2006.1598019
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 7 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper discusses, many inventions referred to lamp development patent by Sawyer and Man conjointly and some by Sawyer separately. In July 1878, Sawyer, Man, and five other individuals formed the Electro-Dynamic Light Company. Westinghouse brought under its control practically all of the important incandescent electric lamp patents except those of the Edison company. Edison had secured a patent about lamp bulb. Upon the expiration of the Edison patent, the Westinghouse company resumed manufacture of the all-glass globe type of lamp. When the lamp business outgrew the capacity of the West 23rd Street factory, it was transferred to a new factory in Bloomfield, New Jersey. View full abstract»

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    Electric lamps, past and present

    Harris, J.B.
    Engineering Science and Education Journal

    Volume: 2 , Issue: 4
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 161 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The article traces the story of the electric lamp, which began when, in 1810, Davy demonstrated the now legendary `bright carbon arc' that led, in 1850, to the production of practical arc lamps. Because of the `powerful' intensity of the arc lamp, there was a demand for `the subdivision of light' and this culminated, in 1879, in the invention of the incandescent filament lamp. Gaseous and vapour discharge lamp research began around 1850 and practical lamps were available in the early 1900s. There were carbon dioxide, nitrogen and neon filled tubes giving `daylight', `sunlight' and red light emissions, respectively. Also, and still available, there were high-voltage, mercury vapour, cold-cathode fluorescent tubes. Following research in the early 1930s mains voltage, high- and low-pressure mercury and sodium vapour lamps have been under constant development and they are widely used today. Fluorescent lamps, introduced in 1938, are regularly being improved in design and among the latest are compact energy saving types that are ideally suited, as direct replacements, for GLS lamps. The recent announcement of the QL induction lighting system is the latest milestone in `electric light' invention View full abstract»

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    Comments on the history of vacuum pumps

    Hablanian, M.H.
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films

    Volume: 2 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1116/1.572699
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 118 - 125

    AVS Journals & Magazines

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    New lamps for old: the story of electric lighting

    Bowers, B.
    IEE Review

    Volume: 41 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1049/ir:19950602
    Publication Year: 1995

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Of all the products of electrical technology, none has made a more profound difference to our way of life than the humble light bulb. The author describes the history of the light bulb from the time it was introduced and started to replace gas lamps to the present day. In particular the author discusses the early developments in arc lighting and incandescent filament lamps. The author also discusses the introduction of mercury vapour lamps, fluorescent lamps, and evacuation of the lamps View full abstract»

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    A century of electronics [the evolution of vacuum tubes]

    Bowers, B.
    IEE Review

    Volume: 50 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1049/ir:20041103
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 36 - 39

    IET Journals & Magazines

    This article traces the evolution of vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) from their origins in incandescent filament lamps. It details the use of diodes and triodes in early radio transmission and detection, being the building blocks of rectifiers, amplifiers and oscillators. It also mentions the later developments of tetrodes and pentodes and concludes that the end of the vacuum tube era began with the introduction of the point contact transistor. View full abstract»

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    Factors affecting lighting fixture operating temperature, fixture life and subsequent suitability for classified areas

    Wiedrich, T.R. ; Woods, J.T.
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1989, Record of Conference Papers.. Industrial Applications Society, 36th Annual

    DOI: 10.1109/PCICON.1989.77880
    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 167 - 170

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A history of the development of early explosionproof incandescent and mercury-vapor lamps and integrally ballasted fixtures is given. The classification of areas in petroleum refineries and chemical facilities, which may be exposed to flammable gases, vapors, or dusts, is discussed, and test methods are briefly described. Problems that arose with the advent of coal gasification and new plastic processes, in which simultaneous exposure to hazardous gases and combustible dusts occurred, are examined. Further process in fixture design, resulting in enclosed and gasketed fixtures suitable for a much broader range of hazardous gases, vapors, and dust and for higher ambient temperatures, is summarized. It is emphasized that today's engineer must be familiar with all the variables which affect industrial lighting fixtures' operating temperature and fixture life in order to specify fixtures which will be safe and reliable in process industry environments. Recommendations on assuring maximum safety and reliability are presented View full abstract»

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    The Age of Vacuum Tubes: Early Devices and the Rise of Radio Communications [Historical]

    Guarnieri, M.
    Industrial Electronics Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/MIE.2012.2182822
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 41 - 43

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Vacuum tubes exploit the thermionic emission of electrons, which was first observed in 1880 by Thomas Alva Edison (18471931) and his engineers while testing incandescent light bulbs with carbon filaments. After installing the first commercial power stations and distribution systems, Edison went back and detected the current emitted by the hot filament that was received at a plate electrode. Edison registered a patent for this in 1884 (one of the 1,093 patents he registered) so that the leading Welsh engineer William Preece (18341913) described the phenomenon as the Edison effect in 1885. However, Edison, dubbed the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” neither understood the phenomenon, presuming it to be a current of charged carbon particles, nor pursued its technical and commercial exploitations. If he had recognized that the current in the vacuum between the hot filament and plate was due to negatively charged particles far smaller than atoms, he might have also been known as the father of electronics. Instead, more than 20 years went by before practical developments were made. View full abstract»

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    New parabolic lens for motion picture projection: New development broadens application of incandescent lamp projection in moving picture theaters


    American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Journal of the

    Volume: 42 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/JoAIEE.1923.6592195
    Publication Year: 1923 , Page(s): 1105

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    For many years condenser lenses have been made in either of two ways: Molded as is the prismatic lens used in motion picture projection and in railway signal lamps, or ground with plane or spherical surfaces as are the plano-convex lenses, regularly used with arc lamp projectors. For some time it has been know that accurately ground surfaces of other than plane or spherical contour (aspheric surfaces) would permit much better control of the light, but early lenses of this design were so costly that they were not practicable for motion picture condensers. View full abstract»

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    Early history of Korean electric light and power development

    Moon-Hyon Nam
    Electric Power, 2007 IEEE Conference on the History of

    DOI: 10.1109/HEP.2007.4510266
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 192 - 200

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper attempted to serve as a research for the revival of the electric light plant (Jeondeungso) erected at the Gyeongbokgung Palace in 1887. This report provided a chronological overview of the development of electric light and power in late Joseon dynasty (Korea) before 1900's. It mainly focused on the establishment of light plant in the palace and the erection of new plant for lighting a detached palace Changdeokgung in 1894. Major installations in the first plant were inferred and set up for reconstruction. The powerhouse was a one-story building divided into an engine and dynamo room, and a boiler room. It consisted of the Edison central station lighting system: two 3kW Edison dynamo belted to a high-speed engine which supplied from a coal-fired boiler. Dynamo had capacity of 60, 16-candlepower lamps, thus giving a capacity of 120 incandescent lamps to the station. The new plant was located about midway between the palaces stood apart one-mile, and had capacity of 2,000, 16- candlepower lamps. It is revealed that electric lighting in the palaces has effected nation modernization and finally led the Emperor Gojong to establish Seoul Electric Company in 1898. View full abstract»

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