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    Diverting Lightning: Part 1 [History]

    Hesla, E.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/MIA.2007.914271
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 10 - 77

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Installation of Bulkhead plates for lightning energy diversion at FAA Communication Towers sites

    Graves, C.M.C. ; Wibisono, B. ; Tenicela, E.
    Lightning Protection (ICLP), 2014 International Conference o

    DOI: 10.1109/ICLP.2014.6973129
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 246 - 250

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper describes our design practices for the effective installation and placement of Bulkhead plates techniques to divert part of the direct lightning strike energy and safely pass its extremely high amplitude and frequency currents waveform to ground on communication lines such as waveguides, axial cables, conduit and down-conductors for FAA Communication Towers in the United States. This technique lessens or reduces the propagation of energy towards the structure. View full abstract»

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    Lightning Protection for Submergible Oilwell Pumps

    Brinner, T.R. ; Bulmer, James H. ; Kelly, Donald W.
    Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: IA-22 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.1986.4504845
    Publication Year: 1986 , Page(s): 1133 - 1141
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Lightning protection for electric submergible pumps has long been an area of concern. Related insulation failures are costly and not altogether uncommon. These are due in part to poor-quality grounds and the tightly spaced geometry of submergible motor windings. An improved protection scheme is proposed wherein separate high-and low-current grounds are used, and the rate of voltage rise is limited. These techniques divert the major portion of lightning energy before it reaches the downhole equipment, thus minimizing coil-to-frame voltage stress. It also slows the rate of voltage rise to reduce turn-to-turn stress within a single motor coil. Design considerations are developed for the protection of an electric submergible pumping system, particularly as they relate to the value, quality, and reliability of individual protection components and various grounding systems. Laboratory test data are presented, showing the effects of motor impedance on performance when characteristic lightning transients are applied. Finally, available field data are reviewed. View full abstract»

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    On the bending effects of a copper-type down conductor

    Ariffen, A.M. ; Ab-Kadir, M.Z.A. ; Gomes, C. ; Jasni, J. ; Izadi, M.
    Lightning Protection (ICLP), 2014 International Conference o

    DOI: 10.1109/ICLP.2014.6973256
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 927 - 935

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Down-conductor is part of critical component in the external Lightning Protection System (LPS) as to divert the lightning current from the air termination to the earth termination system of protected structure. In this paper, numerical analysis approach incorporating the effect of copper conductor bending angle under current transient and voltage is utilized. Various angles of copper conductor will be synthesized following a simplified and generic, but meticulous, model based on the manufacturer's datasheet specification which is normally used. The fields were analyzed and the results were discussed in comparison with the MS IEC 62305-3 standard accordingly. In this case, the cross-sectional area of down-conductor was selected based on the accessible type produced by various manufacturers as proposed by the MS IEC 62305-3 standard for a critical study. This study presents the optimum angle of down-conductor with a view to develop a practical approach and to set the down-conductors in a confined area locations of a building. View full abstract»

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    Techniques of effective cellular site facility protection

    Bellarmine, G.T. ; Lee, M.
    SoutheastCon, 2002. Proceedings IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/.2002.995625
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 387 - 390

    IEEE Conference Publications

    One of the most challenging electrical protection environments is the cellular/PCS (personal communications system) antenna site. Many failure instances were examined and risk factors have been determined. The results show that typical electrical protection at the network interface does not address certain scenarios likely to occur at cellular tower sites. This article discusses why copper telephone cable and premises equipment are vulnerable to lightning-related events. The National Electric Code (NEC) does not address these lightning-related issues. Some lightning-mitigation techniques used at telephone central offices, which have been addressed previously by BELLCORE, including the concept of isolated ground planes, are discussed as they apply to cell/PCS sites. This article discusses one protection scheme (isolation) for typical telephone facilities into cellular antenna sites and the associated buildings or equipment housing. Also discussed are less specific techniques such as minimizing the ground impedance, eliminating or diverting circulating currents, and special coaxial protection. Ground potential rise (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) occur at the same time during unbalanced power line faults. The experimental part of the research examines whether isolation at the network interface at cell sites can address GPR and longitudinal induction due to lightning View full abstract»

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    Step-voltage-optimized Lightning Protection earth-termination systems analysis and simulation

    Brocke, R. ; Hinrichsen, V. ; Suchanek, S. ; Jing Gao
    Lightning Protection (XI SIPDA), 2011 International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SIPDA.2011.6088444
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 272 - 277

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Earth-Termination Systems as an important part of the Lightning Protection Systems must be designed in a way that lightning currents are safely diverted into the ground without generating step-voltages on the surface of the soil that would be dangerous to human beings. The paper considers safety limits for step-voltages and examines the effectiveness of several design principles of earth-termination systems using the possibilities of finite element computer simulations. View full abstract»

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