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    A history of harmonics in power systems

    Owen, E.L.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/2943.644881
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 6 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (14)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Waveforms of potential (voltage) and current in electric power systems are seldom the idealized functions on which engineering work is based. Harmonic analysis can be used to resolve complex time-based waveforms into spectral components. History teaches us that as new problems with harmonics arise, new instruments to measure the phenomenon will be offered and tighter limits on allowable deviations will probably be pushed. The old problems return to take on new forms. View full abstract»

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    A historical perspective of spectrum estimation

    Robinson, E.A.
    Proceedings of the IEEE

    Volume: 70 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/PROC.1982.12423
    Publication Year: 1982 , Page(s): 885 - 907
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The prehistory of spectral estimation has its roots in ancient times with the development of the calendar and the clock. The work of Pythagoras in 600 B.C. on the laws of musical harmony found mathematical expression in the eighteenth century in terms of the wave equation. The struggle to understand the solution of the wave equation was finally resolved by Jean Baptiste Joseph de Fourier in 1807 with his introduction of the Fourier series. The Fourier theory was extended to the case of arbitrary orthogonal functions by Sturm and Liouville in 1836. The Sturm-Liouville theory led to the greatest empirical success of spectral analysis yet obtained, namely the formulation of quantum mechanics as given by Heisenberg and Schrödinger in 1925 and 1926. In 1929 John von Neumann put the spectral theory of the atom on a firm mathematical foundation in his spectral representation theorm in Hilbert space. Meanwhile, Wiener developed the mathematical theory of Brownian movement in 1923, and in 1930 he introduced generalized harmonic analysis, that is, the spectral representation of a stationary random process. The common ground of the spectral representations of von Neumann and Wiener is the Hilbert space; the von Neumann result is for a Hermitian operator, whereas the Wiener result is for a unitary operator. Thus these two spectral representations are related by the Cayley-Möbius transformation. In 1942 Wiener applied his methods to problems of prediction and filtering, and his work was interpreted and extended by Norman Levinson. Wiener in his empirical work put more emphasis on the autocorrelation function than on the power spectrum. The modern history of spectral estimation begins with the breakthrough of J. W. Tukey in 1949, which is the statistical counterpart of the breakthrough of Fourier 142 years earlier. This result made possible an active development of empirical spectral analysis by research workers in all scientific disciplines. However, spectral analysis was computationally expensive. A major computational breakthrough occurred with the publication in 1965 of the fast Fourier transform algorithm by J. S. Cooley and J. W. Tukey. The Cooley-Tukey method made it practical to do signal processing on waveforms in either the tim- e or the frequency domain, something never practical with continuous systems. The Fourier transform became not just a theoretical description, but a tool. With the development of the fast Fourier transform the field of empirical spectral analysis grew from obscurity to importance, and is now a major discipline. Further important contributions were the introduction of maximum entropy spectral analysis by John Burg in 1967, the development of spectral windows by Emmanuel Parzen and others starting in the 1950's, the statistical work of Maurice Priestley and his school, hypothesis testing in time series analysis by Peter Whittle starting in 1951, the Box-Jenkins approach by George Box and G. M. Jenkins in 1970, and autoregressive spectral estimation and order-determining criteria by E. Parzen and H. Akaike starting in the 1960's. To these statistical contributions must be added the equally important engineering contributions to empirical spectrum analysis, which are not treated at all in this paper, but form the subject matter of the other papers in this special issue. View full abstract»

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    VRLA battery lifetime fingerprints - Part 1

    Cotton, B.
    Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC), 2012 IEEE 34th International

    DOI: 10.1109/INTLEC.2012.6374495
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With over 20 years of continuous monitoring of batteries, archival of a trillion points of data, timelines, and trends of over 1.2 million battery units, we are finding some common aging history. As batteries age to the point of replacement, individually, and collectively in single and multiple string systems, we are finding individual and combined characteristics, collective and distinctive fingerprints indicating aging and end of life conditions. In this paper, this is shown and described both in descriptive and graphical presentation. These individual and collective traits cannot be simulated and seen conclusively in the laboratory setting. Accelerated life testing, due to the artificially shorter time required, reduced quantity of data, plus other restraints of simulation do not reflect real world data. These studied traits can only be reliably observed in real life usage conditions over months and years. This is achieved through continuous and frequent monitoring of key signature measurement parameters. Archival of data, trends, and events plus detailed analysis are essential to observe actual battery behavior over real lifetime periods. As a battery ages, there are changes over time in the internal ohmic value. As researched and stated in various IEEE standards, rises in Ohmic Value greater than 30 - 50% are significant and warrant investigation. While not definitive, this level of rise from a baseline of a 100% capacity battery is an indication that the battery has decreased below full capacity of when the battery was new and performing to manufacturer's specifications. Further evidence showing correlation of ohmic values vs. capacity has been shown in extensive studies performed several years ago (2002) by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute.) A great deal of controversy exists regarding the correlation of ohmic value vs. capacity shown and calculated during a battery discharge test. This controversy continues to exist regardless whether the battery us- r performs ongoing discharge tests after initial acceptance discharge tests or not. Most users elect to rely on ohmic values and trends plus other measurement parameters to determine RUL (Remaining Useful Life.) and replacement criteria. This is done without periodic discharge testing which can cause risk and additional costs. These aging changes are caused by time, temperature, electrical and chemical variances, mechanical and other anomalies, plus usage patterns, interfaced equipment, charge/discharge cycles, harmonics, and load levels. All aging factors will cause ohmic values to rise or change as the battery decreases in capacity. Some common aging factors causing Ohmic rise or change are listed in this paper. Continuous frequent monitoring and record keeping of battery ohmic values, plus other battery measurement parameters are essential to predicting end of life conditions. This is true for individual battery units, as well as the complete battery system. Measuring, trending, and archiving ohmic values over time, in addition to other measurement parameters that affect ohmic values allow for extensive predictive analysis. In addition, continuous monitoring, data analysis and archived trend analysis help maintain battery unit and system state of health (SOH), state of charge (SOC), and allow for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). Observation, collection of this data and the use of proven mathematical prognostic techniques and models can be combined for lifetime prediction and forecasts. This will be part 2 of this paper. Prognostic methods are varied and diverse. They include many modeling techniques. Examples include: Bayesian theories, Neural Networks, Moving Averages, Kalman Filters, and many other high level mathematical models. These methods allow for the prediction of future points in calculated curve series utilizing data from battery Ohmic values which are affected by other measurement parameters including temperatures, AC float and ripple v View full abstract»

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    An Attempt to Investigate the Transformer Failure by using DGA and SFRA Analysis

    Patil, S.S. ; Chaudhari, S.E.
    Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials (ICPADM), 2012 IEEE 10th International Conference on the

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPADM.2012.6318985
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A sudden increasing power demand leads to manufacture of large number of oil immersed power transformers and other electrical power equipments. Power transformers are the most vital equipment in power system. Any failure in transformer leads to malfunction of whole power system. Unfortunately, the failure rate of these transformers is very high in India, 25% per annum, which is not favorable as compared to international units of 1-2 %. Failures happen due to internal reasons or operational hazardless. Transformer insulation deteriorates as the function of temperature, moisture and time. The core and winding losses, stray losses in tank and metal support structures are the principle sources of heat which cause oil and winding temperature rise. There are multiple reasons for overheating such as improper cooling, excessive eddy currents, bad joints, blocked radiators, overloading, improper earthing and harmonic contents in power supply. This leads to accelerated aging of oil and cellulosic solid insulation, which generate the gases within transformer and further leads to permanent failure. To prevent such failures, effective analysis and diagnosis needs to be investigated. The type of gases generated and amount of gas concentrations in oil efficiently evaluated using Dissolved Gas analysis (DGA). Various other electrical diagnostic tests like winding resistance test, short circuit impedance, oil analysis and sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) are also helpful for identification of abnormalities and probable fault area. SFRA technique is widely accepted and used for transformer mechanical condition assessment. Based on the type and concentration of gases generated in oil along with application of SFRA test on transformer can help to identify the abnormal areas prior to catastrophic failure. An attempt has made for the investigation on relation of DGA with SFRA response. Case studies are presented here for the transformers which have higher fault gas concentration- (DGA). Additional diagnostic tests and analysis, inspection and history data has found supportive in investigation. View full abstract»

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    Development of continuum interferometry for dynamic measurement of plasma density in wire array z-pinches

    Haboub, A. ; Ivanov, V.V. ; Sarkisov, G.S.
    Plasma Science - Abstracts, 2009. ICOPS 2009. IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/PLASMA.2009.5227506
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Optical laser diagnostics are widely used for probing Z-pinch plasmas. Measurement of the electron plasma density with regular laser interferometry meets the zero-number fringe issue on the axis of the Z-pinch. From the ablation stage on, the density of the inhomogeneous plasma increases quickly and produces very complicated structures of fringes. Even two-frame interferometry cannot derive the plasma density because it does not include non-perturbed reference fringes, and the plasma near the electrodes and the wires frame the axial area of the pinch. We suggest a new diagnostic to record a continuous history of the interferograms and the individual evolution of the fringes. In this case, the plasma density could be measured by deriving the shift of the fringes on the slit of a streak camera. This diagnostic is based on the Nd:YAG laser with a long probing pulse of 300 ns, at a fundamental wavelength of 1064, Mach Zehnder interferometer, and an optical streak camera. A CW laser at the wavelength of 1064 nm with a power 0.7 W, seeds two multi-pass amplifiers. A Pockels Cell cuts a 300-500 ns pulse from the CW radiation for amplification. A sevenpass amplification provides a total gain >10 s. Faraday rotators are used to prevent self-oscillation in the laser system. The laser pulse at the fundamental frequency will be converted to the second and fourth harmonics. This diagnostic has been developed in order to provide precision measurements of the plasma density during the ablation and the implosion phases in wire arrays. View full abstract»

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    An Approximate Method for Transient State Estimation

    Yu, K.K.C. ; Watson, N.R.
    Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 22 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2007.901147
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1680 - 1687
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Voltage dip is a frequently occurring power-quality problem that electricity consumers face. Knowledge of the source and magnitude of the voltage dip is desirable; however, complete monitoring of the power system is prohibitive. State estimation for both fundamental and harmonic frequencies was presented previously. Its ability to utilize limited measurements for system-wide estimation has proven to be very effective. In this paper, the technique is extended further to estimate power system transients. Transient state estimation (TSE) provides an effective and systematic approach in locating and identifying remote fault sources, thus allowing the problem to be addressed more efficiently. The proposed approach formulates the system using state-space theory and results in a system of first-order differential equations which are used to form the measurement system. The estimation is the simultaneous solution of the measurement system equations based on a time sequence of snapshots of the system measurements. Additional measurement information utilizes the voltage and current history measurements where they are approximated using backward Euler integration formula, are also supplied to the TSE algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the proposed TSE, transients caused by a sudden lost of a system load have been simulated on the test system. This paper provides a new methodology to estimate a complete transient profile of a power system. View full abstract»

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    Converter Propulsion Systems with Three-Phase Induction Motors for Electric Traction Vehicles

    Kielgas, Hans ; Nill, Reiner
    Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: IA-16 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.1980.4503775
    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 222 - 233
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Three-phase induction machines have a number of advantages compared with collector type machines which make them particularly suitable for traction purposes. These advantages, which were recognized long before, could only be used in praxis by means of the progress, which the development of static power converters has made in the last decade. Primarily having been used in diesel-electric traction vehicles inverter-fed three-phase induction motors are now going to be applied in large scale to line-fed electric vehicles. In this field of application the induction machine has some additional advantages; e.g., the motor torque versus speed curve declines much less with increasing speed than that of the common series wound ac machine. Consequently, for the first time in history universal electric locomotives can be built, which are equally suited for hauling high-speed passenger trains as well as heavy freight trains. Converter systems are described, which do not drain reactive power from the supply line or even feed reactive power into the line, if necessary, and produce only a small amount of harmonics. Hence these systems are very well suited for high-power electric traction vehicles as well as for smaller vehicles, which are in service simultaneously in one district (e.g., rapid transit vehicles), and for industrial locomotives. Finally, some test and production vehicles with three-phase induction motors, test data, and experiences in service of such vehicles are described. View full abstract»

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    Failure of the London Underground's 22 kV power supply system: An exercise in logic and transport management

    Allan, J. ; Mellitt, B. ; Field, C.
    Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings -

    Volume: 147 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1049/ip-epa:20000518
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 273 - 280

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The power supply to the north-east sector of London Underground Ltd's Central Line, and therefore the train service, was out of service for the majority of the time between the 24th and the 29th November 1993. During this period the power system faults were investigated, identified and corrected. This incident was the most extensive power fault on London Underground's power supply system in its recent history. The key cause was identified as an earth fault on a neutral cable of an alternator, which was located several kilometres from the part of the network that became inoperative. London Underground's power 22 kV generation and distribution system is described, and the feed arrangements historically made to minimise the possibility of such an extensive outage are explained. The events leading to the loss of supply. Subsequent identification and correction of the underlying main fault are described, and a model of the 150 Hz harmonic earth-return current. Which was the immediate cause of tripping owing to a series resonant circuit condition, is included. The effect of the neutral cable fault was to increase the 150 Hz current to the point where it caused simultaneous multiple feeder breaker trips from earth-fault relays for the feeders supplying the northeast sector of the Central Line, resulting in loss of power to that sector. A comparison is made between the model and practically measured results View full abstract»

  • Freely Available from IEEE

    IEEE Power Engineering Society

    Mack Grady, W. ; Santoso, S.
    Power Engineering Review, IEEE

    Volume: 21 , Issue: 11
    DOI: 10.1109/39.961985
    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): c2
    Cited by:  Papers (9)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

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    Distributed Rectifier Loads in Electric Power Systems

    Heydt, G.T. ; Grady, W.M.
    Power Engineering Review, IEEE

    Volume: PER-4 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/MPER.1984.5525824
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 57 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Modern literature on power system harmonic problems, analysis, and solution is mostly of the case history type [1]. When the harmonic signal strength is low, the assumption of sinusoidal bus voltages is usually made, thereby simplifying analysis considerably. Since interest is often restricted to distribution circuits, simple radial circuit configuration is frequently assumed, and band (frequency) limitation of harmonics is also assumed. The proliferation of rectifier and other nonlinear loads, however, particularly in localized regions, suggests a renewed look at harmonic signals, especially at high harmonic content, near resonance, and cases of considerable bus voltage distortion. Xia and Heydt [2-3] have modified the Newton-Raphson power flow study algorithm to accommodate nonlinear loads without the assumption of superposition, radial circuitry, or sinusoidal bus voltage. Grady [7] has extended the Xia-Heydt algorithm to include nonlinear resistive loads (e.g. fluorescent lamps) and zero sequence signals. One of the primary reasons for the increased deployment of nonlinear loads is the successful development of high power semiconductor switching devices. Nonlinear loads are often characterized by either widespread distribution (such as the case in fluorescent lighting loads and electronic loads and such is the potential in the case of electric vehicle loads [4-6]). Also, the use of large industrial rectifiers directly on the subtransmission voltage system is not unusual in applications of large dc motors, electro-deposition installations, and induction furnaces. Static var devices are new electronic localized sources of harmonic signals. View full abstract»

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    Harmonic damping by means of DG front-end converter. Part I: Theory and algorithm

    Angeli, G. ; Superti-Furga, G. ; Tironi, E.
    Harmonics and Quality of Power, 2008. ICHQP 2008. 13th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICHQP.2008.4668834
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The increasing use of electronic devices within electric power systems results in current and voltage distortions. This is a relevant problem in weak networks and, in particular, under resonant conditions. The long history of minimization of negative effects due to distorted currents has encouraged researchers and designers to attempt different control strategies for electronic converters. In this paper, a new control for bidirectional converters is proposed, whose active power exchanged with the grid depends on the sinusoidal balanced current term. Whereas at harmonic frequencies and negative sequence the proposed control emulates a resistive behavior, a damping effect on disturbances is achieved. The proposed control is economically feasible within small DG-systems. Measurements at ac converter terminals are the only required. Moreover, differential treatment of fundamental positive-sequence current and the remaining components allows the same control strategy to be maintained over the whole working range. View full abstract»

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    Wide-area monitoring and control at Hydro-Quebec: past, present and future

    Kamwa, I. ; Beland, J. ; Trudel, G. ; Grondin, R. ; Lafond, C. ; McNabb, D.
    Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2006. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2006.1709097
    Publication Year: 2006
    Cited by:  Papers (24)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper recalls the 30-year history of wide-area measurements at Hydro-Quebec. At present, a state-of-the art, eight-PMU-based wide-area monitoring system commissioned in 2004 is on line, feeding the EMS with GPS-synchronized angles, frequencies, and harmonic distortion measurements from key 735-kV buses. Specific to Hydro-Quebec is the current use of one such system for frequency regulation reporting and control-room implementation of preventive measures against geomagnetic storm-induced contingencies. Building on this experience, the Hydro-Quebec research institute, together with TransEnergie, is developing advanced applications which, in the long term, will go beyond active monitoring to safely initiate targeted control actions aimed at extending system power transfer limits with respect to both transient and long-term stability. In addition to the major improvement in inter-area mode damping shown previously by the authors, this paper demonstrates that, surprisingly, wide-area control of static VAr compensators (SVC) will also vastly extend the first-swing stability margins. Finally, initial results on a wide-area measurement-based secondary voltage control of the extensive park of dynamic shunt compensators in our grid using a single pilot voltage from the load center are very encouraging View full abstract»

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    Distributed Rectifier Loads in Electric Power Systems

    Heydt, G.T. ; Grady, W.M.
    Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PAS-103 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/TPAS.1984.318399
    Publication Year: 1984 , Page(s): 2452 - 2459
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The level of rectifier and fluorescent loads in electric power systems is often significant in localized areas. Typically, the nonlinear loads are distributed over many distribution and subtransmission busses. In this paper, the harmonic signal levels resulting from distributed rectifier loads are examined using a recently reported harmonic power flow study algorithm. Because the algorithm does not rely on superposition or sinusoidal bus voltage assumptions, it may be applied in cases of high harmonic content such as near- resonant conditions. A case history is presented and examination of alternative methods of harmonic attenuation is presented. Also, for six pulse, line commutated rectifiers, the effect of dc circuit load variation and dc circuit inductance on harmonic signal levels is examined. View full abstract»

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    An adaptive technique for estimating ship motion in SAR data

    Dragosevic, M.V. ; Henschel, M.D. ; Livingstone, C.E.
    Radar Conference, 2007. EuRAD 2007. European

    DOI: 10.1109/EURAD.2007.4404945
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 95 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper describes a complete procedure for estimation and compensation of ship motion in SAR data. Our methodology relies on extraction and modelling of the Doppler phase history and power envelope in slow time. The model parameters have a physical interpretation under the assumption that the cruising velocity is constant and that the wobbling is a superposition of simple harmonic terms due to the encountered wave held. All underlying assumptions are carefully analyzed. The accuracy of cruising velocity estimates is analyzed under special conditions. The applicability of the approach to both airborne and spaceborne systems is discussed. View full abstract»

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    Zero voltage fired, transformer coupled thyristor power control applied for temperature control of the tin bath in the float glass process, an update

    Heath, L. ; Blackmond, R.C.
    Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 1989., Conference Record of the 1989 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IAS.1989.96823
    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 1375 - 1379 vol.2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A thyristor-based power circuit was recently implemented for the temperature control of the tin bath in a float glass manufacturing process. Heat control is accomplished by individual thyristor-based devices utilizing zero-voltage-fired thyristors in time proportioning mode for transformer primary voltage modulation. This approach allows fewer transformer taps while causing no degradation of circuit power factor. In addition, harmonic distortion usually associated with phase-angle control in this application is eliminated. The authors provide an update on this temperature control system, including information relating to system performance, harmonic distortion, and power factory history after about one year of operation.<> View full abstract»

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    Remote power system harmonics measurement and monitor via the Internet

    Lin, H.C.
    Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, 2004 IEEE Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/ICCIS.2004.1460461
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 474 - 479 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Traditional methods to measure power system harmonics employ either the power harmonic analyser or the software package such as Matlab. They, however, usually have limited capability in the Internet connection and/or graphical interface. In this paper, a PC-based virtual instrument (VI) that can carry out a remote measurement and monitor using Lab VIEW and the microprocessor (Intel 8051) for power system harmonics is proposed. The history of total harmonic distortion (THD) in the waveform signal can be also recorded and tracked in the database. View full abstract»

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    On line multi-location power system harmonics measurement via the internet

    Hsiung Cheng Lin
    Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2005. ICECS 2005. 12th IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICECS.2005.4633401
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Traditional methods to measure power system harmonics employ either the power harmonic analyser or the software package such as Matlab. They, however, usually have limited capability in the Internet connection and/or human graphical interface even for multi-point measurement. In this paper, a PC-based virtual instrument (VI) to implement a remote multi-point power system harmonics analysis and monitoring using LabVIEW is proposed. The nearby PC (Server) can collect real-time waveform data from multi-locations and transmit it to remote PCs (Clients) for on line harmonic analysis and monitoring via the Internet. The history of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the waveform signals can be also recorded and tracked in the database. Experimental results have testified its good performance and remote Web-based capability. View full abstract»

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    Remote real-time power system harmonics detection and monitoring via the Internet

    Hsiung Cheng Lin
    Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2005 IEEE International Conference on

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/ICSMC.2005.1571585
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2867 - 2872 Vol. 3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Traditional methods to measure power system harmonics employ either the power harmonic analyser or the software package such as Matlab. They, however, usually have limited capability in the Internet connection and/or human graphical interface. In this paper, a PC-based virtual instrument (VI) that can carry out a remote detection and monitoring using LabVIEW and the microprocessor (Intel 8051) for power system harmonics is proposed. The nearby PC (server) can collect real-time waveform data that is transmitted to remote PCs (clients) for on line harmonic analysis and monitoring via the Internet. The history of total harmonic distortion (THD) in the waveform signal can be also recorded and tracked in the data base by clients. Experimental results have testified its well performance and remote capability. View full abstract»

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    Zero voltage fired, transformer coupled thyristor power control applied for temperature control of the tin bath in the float glass process

    Heath, L. ; Blackmond, R.C.
    Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 1988., Conference Record of the 1988 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IAS.1988.25195
    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 1080 - 1086 vol.2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A novel thyristor-based power circuit is described which substitutes zero-voltage fired, time proportioning control, and thus allows fewer transformer taps while causing no degradation of circuit power factor. In addition, harmonic distortion usually associated with phase angle control in this application is also eliminated. A system description outlining power requirements, a comparison of power factor costs, and system design philosophy is provided, along with some operational history and an explanation of the thyristor control.<> View full abstract»

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    Zero-voltage-fired transformer-coupled thyristor power control applied for temperature control of the tin bath in the float glass process

    Heath, L. ; Blackmond, R.C.
    Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 25 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/28.41241
    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 805 - 810

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A novel thyristor-based power circuit is described that substitutes zero-voltage-fired time-proportioning control and thus allows fewer transformer taps while causing no degradation of circuit power factor. Harmonic distortion usually associated with phase angle control in this application is eliminated. A system description outlining power requirements, a comparison of power factor costs, and system design philosophy are provided along with some operational history and an explanation of the thyristor control View full abstract»

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    Development of a spread spectrum transmission system for track circuit

    Taguchi, A. ; Sugawara, A.
    Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications Proceedings, 1996., IEEE 4th International Symposium on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/ISSSTA.1996.563805
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 385 - 389 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The Japanese high speed train-Shinkansen-has had in its 30 years history, no fatal accidents. Its safety is secured by the signalling system, which is called ATC-automatic train control. The principle of this ATC system is that the speed signal information is transmitted to the rolling stock from the rail track. The rail constitutes a rail track distributed transmission line, and the transmission mode is single side band which is synchronized by the power supply. Since Shinkansen is electrified by AC 60 Hz 25000 V, this system can avoid its harmonic waves effectively. Nevertheless the electromagnetic environment of Shinkansen has worsened. The reason is the introduction of high power rolling stock. The high power rolling stock realize 270 km/h operation, and since this high power rolling stock uses VVVF system-variable voltage and variable frequency-the harmonic waves are not so simple. To endure such an environment we have succeeded in experimenting with the spread spectrum transmission system at the rail track, and report this here View full abstract»

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    Nonlinear dynamic modeling and numerical simulation of the wind turbine's gear train

    Xiaosun Wang ; Shijing Wu
    Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICECENG.2011.6057904
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2385 - 2389

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, we establish the nonlinear dynamic model of wind turbine gear train, which contains one planetary gear set and two parallel axial gear set. The strongly nonlinear factors, including time variable mesh stiffness, nonlinear backlash and meshing error, are included in our model. To convert the semi-define system with rigid displacement model into define one, we introduce the relative meshing displacement and do the non-dimensional dynamic equations of treatment. The one-periodic response, sub-harmonic response, quasi-periodic response and chaotic response of the system are acquired based on the numerical integration method of variable time-step. Such qualitative methods as the time history curve, phase trajectory, Poincare section and power spectrum and etc. are used in the presented paper to analyze the nonlinear dynamics characteristics with different system parameter settings. View full abstract»

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    Misapplication of power capacitors in distribution systems with nonlinear loads-three case histories

    Simpson, R.H.
    Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 41 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2004.840992
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 134 - 143
    Cited by:  Papers (12)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Application of power-factor-correction capacitors in modern industrial plants must consider harmonic components of voltage and current in the application. Whether the capacitors are installed as power-factor correction for individual motors, as a bank of capacitors, or as a tuned filter capacitor bank, harmonic distortion can prove disastrous to the application. Three case histories are discussed. View full abstract»

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    Power quality management in the French electric system history, present position and future trends

    Martinon, J. ; Boudou, D.
    Harmonics and Quality of Power, 2002. 10th International Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/ICHQP.2002.1221448
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 295 - 300 vol.1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In less than two years, the French electricity system has gone from a situation where EDF had a national monopoly to an open market where several independent players are interacting. This article shows how EDF's power quality policy has evolved to follow these changes, and summarises the new situation. It also discusses several possible scenarios for the future. The organisation that has been put in place has witnessed the perpetuation of the commitments taken in 1995 by EDF as regards the quality of the supply. These commitments are included in new network access contracts proposed to eligible and non eligible customers. In this respect, the French experience shows that major customers, who were calling out for the market to be opened up to competition, are not however willing to accept any reduction in their requirements regarding the quality of supply. View full abstract»

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    Assessment of power quality issues at both sides of the meter. The Customer Technical Assistance Service of IBERDROLA

    Amantegui, J. ; Zabala, L. ; Pazos, F.
    Harmonics and Quality of Power, 2000. Proceedings. Ninth International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ICHQP.2000.897715
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 410 - 415 vol.2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This report describes IBERDROLA's experience with its Customer Technical Assistance Service. The purpose of this group is to study the evolution of power quality in the EHV, HV and MV network and provide solutions for customers with problems arising in their production processes due to disturbances in the electrical network or inside their facilities. This service is composed of a limited number of highly qualified engineers and already has an extensive history with more than 500 cases successfully solved. In the company's own opinion, and that of the customer, the service makes a very valuable contribution toward improving relationship between the electrical utility and its customers. The service follows an integral approach dealing with power quality issues from both sides of the meter. These issues are presented as well as the areas of interest regarding the competitive environment View full abstract»

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