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    Concurrency

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 495
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Fluxless Bonding of Bismuth Telluride Chips to Alumina Using Ag–In System for High Temperature Thermoelectric Devices

    Lin, W.P. ; Lee, C.C.
    Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 1 , Issue: 9
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TCPMT.2011.2160944
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1311 - 1318
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for thermoelectric devices. In this paper, the fluxless bonding process was developed to bond Bi2Te3 chips to alumina substrates for high temperature applications. The silver-indium (Ag-In) system was chosen for the process development. To work with this system, the Bi2Te3 chips were coated with 100 nm titanium (Ti) and 100 nm gold (Au) as barrier layer and plated with 10 μm Ag layer. The Bi2Te3 samples were annealed at 250°C for 200 h. No interdiffusion between Bi2Te3 and Ag was detected. The Ti/Au barrier layer was not affected either. It showed exceptional step coverage on the rough Bi2Te3 surface even after the annealing process. To prepare for bonding, alumina substrates with 40 nm TiW and 2.5 μm Au were plated with 60 μm Ag, followed by 5 μm In and thin Ag cap layer for oxidation prevention. The Bi2Te3 chips were bonded to alumina substrates at 180°C. No flux was used. The resulting void-free joint consists of five regions: Ag, (Ag), Ag2In, (Ag) and Ag. (Ag) is Ag-rich solid solution. The joint has a melting temperature higher than 660 °C. Due to the thick ductile Ag layer on alumina, the Bi2Te3 chip did not break after bonding despite its significant coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch with alumina. View full abstract»

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    Reduced Gold-Plating on Copper Leads for Thermocompression Bonding--Part II: Long Term Reliability

    Panousis, N. ; Hall, P.
    Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 13 , Issue: 3
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TPHP.1977.1135202
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 309 - 313
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This two-part series is an evaluation of the acceptability for thermocompression (TC) bonding of Cu leads having reduced thicknesses of Au-plating at the bond sites. Part I was concerned with initial characterization which made use of recent grain boundary diffusion work in the Cu-Au system. In this second part, long term reliability is considered where use is made of recent work in volume interdiffusion in the Cu-Au system. Three properties are evaluated: 1) Long term reliability based on accelerated aging of bonded leads; 2) temperature cycling; and 3) cyclic 45° bend fatigue. Results of these evaluations are the following. 1) A lifetime of greater than 40 years at 50° C is predicted for Cu leads with as little as 0.7 µm Au-plating. This conclusion was reached using volume interdiffusion as the rate controlling mechanism for the observed decrease in strengths. The same conclusion was reached from a statistical analysis of the lifetime data without making recourse to a physical model for the degradation. 2) No degradation in bond strength was observed for up through 300 temperature cycles between -40 and +150°C. 3) Cyclic 45° bend fatigue of the bonded leads was not affected by the Au-plating thicknesses studied. In summary, when the results of both parts are combined, the overall conclusion is that oxygen-free Cu leads plated with as little as 0.7 µm Au are judged acceptable for TC bonding. View full abstract»

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    Missing solder ball failure mechanisms in plastic ball grid array packages

    Zhong, C.H. ; Yi, S. ; Mui, Y.C. ; Howe, C.P. ; Olsen, D. ; Chen, W.T.
    Electronic Components & Technology Conference, 2000. 2000 Proceedings. 50th

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ECTC.2000.853139
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 151 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Plastic ball grid array packages were aged at 125 and 150°C for different time intervals from 4 to 2000 hours. Various solder ball pad metallurgy including pure Ni barrier layer (electrolytic plating) with Au protective layer from 0.48 to 1.27 μm, Ni-P barrier layer (electroless plating) with 0.48 μm Au protective layer and Ni-Co barrier layer with Au layer from 0.52 to 1.46 μm were studied. Solder ball shear test was conducted at each time interval of aging. Solder ball shear strength decreased after initial hardening stage. The deterioration of solder ball shear strength was found mainly caused by the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers, together with microstructure coarsening and diffusion related porosity at the interface. Sn forms different intermetallic compound layers with different Ni barrier layer. For ball pad metallurgy in this studied, two intermetallic compound layers formed after aging. A critical Au thickness value was found between 0.48 μm to 0.7 μm for electrolytic Ni. If Au protective layer is thinner than the critical value, separate (Au, Ni)Sn4 IMC particles form on surface of Ni, Sn4. If Au layer is thicker than the critical value, a continuous (Au, Ni)Sn4 layer forms on top of Ni3Sn 4. Thick Au layer and high aging temperature result in formation of thicker (Au, Ni)Sn4 intermetallic compound layer in short time. For electrolytic Ni/Co plating, the critical Au thickness is thinner than pure electrolytic Ni plating in terms of continuous (Au, Ni, Co), Sny intermetallic compound layer formation. In shear test, fracture occurs at either interfaces or in the layer with the lowest shear strength. Once two continuous intermetallic compound layers formed, the fracture tends to occur at their interface. It was found that the bonding strength between (Au, Ni, Co),Sny and (Ni, Co)3Sn4 is higher than that between (Au, Ni)Sn4 and Ni3Sn4. For ball pad metallurgy do not form two continuous intermetallic compound layers, the shear strength decrease due to the coarsening of microstructure, intermetallic particle formation and diffusion related porosity on surface of Ni3Sn4. A Phosphorus rich layer forms at the interface between Ni3Sn4 and Ni-P barrier layer after aging, fracture at this interface is not the dominate failure mode for electroless Ni/Au metallurgy View full abstract»

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    Reliability and Au-concentration in OLB solder fillets of TAB-devices having a 75 μm pitch

    Zakel, E. ; Villain, J. ; Reichl, H.
    Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part B: Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 1
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/96.486496
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 138 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    TAB-OLB contacts having 75-μm pitch were applied in a detailed long-term reliability test program. A variation of the Au-concentration in the OLB solder fillet was made using tapes with different thicknesses of the Au-tape metallization of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.2 μm. Pull tests and corresponding metallurgical investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal Au-thickness for best reliability performance. Compared to the OL-bonds having high Au-concentrations (0.8 and 1.2 m Au-tape metallization), the samples with low Au-concentrations (0.2 and 0.5 μm Au) show lower mechanical pull test values after bonding, thermal aging, and thermal cycling. From the variation of Au-metallization thickness the tapes with 0.8 μm have the best reliability performance. This can be attributed to the improvement of solder wetting behavior due to higher Au-concentrations. Additionally the improved solder fillet formation leads to a better mechanical performance of the whole contact. The presence of intermetallic Au-Sn phases does not affect the reliability even after severe thermal cycling treatment. The Au-concentration in the solder fillet of the present study are all well below the critical value of 10 at.%, so that Kirkendall pore formation in the ternary Cu-Sn-Au system is not the main failure mechanism. The formation of ternary Cu-Au-Sn intermetallic compounds causes a continuous decrease of the copper lead thickness. A new aspect is the growth limitation of the compounds due to the limited amount of Sn in the fillet. The formation of Kirkendall-voids and the growth of the ternary compounds of the type (CuAu)6Sn5 stop when Sn in the solder fillet is totally consumed. This is accompanied with a coagulation of already formed Kirkendall-pores causing an annealing effect of pull-test values after extended thermal aging treatments (155°C, 500-1000 h) View full abstract»

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    Reliability and Au-concentration in OLB solder fillets of TAB-devices having a 75 μm pitch

    Zakel, E. ; Villain, J. ; Reichl, H.
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1994. Proceedings., 44th

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ECTC.1994.367524
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 883 - 893

    IEEE Conference Publications

    TAB-OLB contacts having 75 μm pitch were applied in a detailed long term reliability test programme. A variation of the Au-concentration in the OLB solder fillet was made using tapes with different thicknesses of the Au-tape metallization of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 μm. Pull tests and corresponding metallurgical investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal Au-thickness for best reliability performance. Compared to the OL-bonds having high Au-concentrations (0.8 and 1.2 μm Au-tape metallization), the samples with low Au-concentrations (0.2 and 0.5 μm Au) show lower mechanical pull test values after bonding, thermal aging and thermal cycling. This can be attributed to the improvement of solder wetting behaviour due to higher Au-concentrations. Additional the improved solder fillet formation leads to a better mechanical performance of the whole contact. The presence of intermetallic Au-Sn phases does not affect the reliability even after severe thermal cycling treatment. The Au-concentration in the solder fillet of the present study are all well below the critical value of 10 wt%, so that Kirkendall pore formation in the ternary Cu-Sn-Au system is not the main failure mechanism. The formation of ternary Cu-Au-Sn intermetallic compounds causes a continuous decrease of the copper lead thickness. A new aspect is the growth limitation of the compounds due to the limited amount of Sn in the fillet. The formation of Kirkendall-voids and the growth of the ternary compounds of the type (CuAu)6Sn5 stop, when Sn in the solder fillet is totally consumed. This is accompanied with a coagulation of already formed Kirkendall-pores causing an annealing effect of pull-test values after extended thermal aging treatments (155°C, 500-1000 hours) View full abstract»

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    Magnetic properties of fcc‐Fe multilayer (invited) (abstract)

    Matsui, M. ; Doi, M. ; Kida, A. ; Yamada, Y.
    Journal of Applied Physics

    Volume: 79 , Issue: 8
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1063/1.362248
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 5583

    AIP Journals & Magazines

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    Programming Languages

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 339
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Mobility

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 597
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Low-temperature wafer bonding using sub-micron gold particles for wafer-level MEMS packaging

    Ishida, H. ; Ogashiwa, T. ; Kanehira, Y. ; Ito, S. ; Yazaki, T. ; Mizuno, J.
    Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration (LTB-3D), 2012 3rd IEEE International Workshop on

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/LTB-3D.2012.6238083
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 173

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Low-temperature wafer bonding using sub-μm gold particles together with wafer-level pattern transfer method has been developed. Sub-μm Au particle patterns were successfully transferred at 150°C and wafer bonding was performed at 200°C. Surface compliant performance was demonstrated by compression deformation measurement. View full abstract»

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    RF MEMS Capacitive Switches for Wide Temperature Range Applications Using a Standard Thin-Film Process

    Mahameed, R. ; Rebeiz, G.M.
    Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 59 , Issue: 7
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2135376
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1746 - 1752
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and measurements of a capacitive RF microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch with very low sensitivity to thermal stress is presented. The switch is built by thin-film technology (0.8-μm Au) and shows <;50-mV/°C variation in the pull-down voltage at 25 °C-125 °C. The effects of the residual biaxial stress and stress gradients are studied in detail and the final switch design is very tolerant to a wide range of stress. The switch exhibits excellent RF and mechanical performances, and a capacitance ratio of about 51-57 (Cu = 54-66 fF, Cd = 3.1 - 3.4 pF) is reported. The mechanical resonant frequency and quality factor are fο = 105 - 115 kHz and Qm ≈ 8, respectively, with a measured switching time of about 3-3.8 μs. The applications areas are in low-loss RF MEMS, phase shifters, and reconfigurable networks. View full abstract»

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    Low temperature bonding using sub-micron Au particles for wafer-level MEMS packaging

    Ito, S. ; Mizuno, J. ; Ishida, H. ; Ogashiwa, T. ; Kanehira, Y. ; Murai, H. ; Wakai, F. ; Shoji, S.
    CPMT Symposium Japan, 2012 2nd IEEE

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICSJ.2012.6523451
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this study, low temperature bonding using sub-micron Au particles was investigated. Two types of Au particles with different average mean diameter of 0.1 μm and 0.3 μm were used. The 0.1 μm Au particles were sintered at lower temperature than that of 0.3 μm. These particles have an advantage of low sintering temperature under 200 °C, and compensating surface roughness. The compression deformation properties of Au particles were measured. They were compressed to around 3 and 5 μm at 30 and 100 MPa applied pressure, respectively. Chip-level bonding was performed with sealing rings of Au particles. The tensile strength of 55.2 MPa was obtained by bonding under applied pressure of 50 MPa at 100 °C. As the evaluation of hermeticity, gross leak test was performed for bonded chips with single, double, and triple sealing rings. View full abstract»

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    Reduced Gold-Plating on Copper Leads for Thermocompression Bonding-Part I: Initial Characterization

    Panousis, N. ; Hall, P.
    Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 13 , Issue: 3
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TPHP.1977.1135201
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 305 - 309
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this two part series, Au-plated Cu leads with reduced Au thicknesses are evaluated for thermocompression (TC) bonding. Part I is concerned with initial characterization, which makes use of recent measurements of grain boundary diffusion coefficients (D') of Cu through Au. Part II considers the problem of predicting the long term reliability (40 years at 50°C) of these TC bonds, using recent measurements of the volume interdiffusion coefficients (D). Oxygen-free Cu leads plated with as little as 0.7 µm Au were compared to the more typical plating thickness of about 2.5 µm. The properties evaluated in Part I are: 1) initial TC bondability; and 2) prebond shelf life, i.e., TC bondability after storage of the Au-plated leads. Results of these evaluations are the following. 1) Leads plated with as little as 0.7 µm Au can have acceptable initial TC bond strengths especially when bonded at 30 to 50 percent deformation. 2) High-temperature storage of the leads followed by TC bonding indicates a shelf life of greater than two years at 50°C. This is in agreement with predictions based on grain boundary diffusion of Cu through Au: D' = 8 x 10-5exp (-0.91 eV/kT) [cm2/s]. Thus the initial characterization was successful for Au thicknesses down to 0.7 µm. View full abstract»

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    Semantic Foundations

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 19
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Contributors

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 721 - 722
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles
    A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Security Issue in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Jha, R.K. ; Limkar, S.V. ; Dalal, U.D.
    Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICETET), 2010 3rd International Conference on

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICETET.2010.140
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 825 - 830
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles

    "A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Security Issue in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks"
    by Rakesh Kumar Jha, Suresh V. Limkar, Dr. Upena D. Dalal
    in the 3rd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICETET), 2010, pp. 825 - 830

    After careful and considered review of the content and authorship of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.

    This paper contains significant portions of original text from the papers cited below. The original text was copied without attribution (including appropriate references to the original author(s) and/or paper title) and without permission.

    Due to the nature of this violation, reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper, and future references should be made to the following articles:

    "Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions"
    by Hao Yang, Haiyun Luo, Fan Ye, Songwu Lu, Lixia Zhang
    in IEEE Wireless Communications Vol. 11 Issue 1, 2005, pp.38 - 47

    "ZRP versus DSR and TORA: A comprehensive survey on ZRP performance"
    by Spilio Giannoulis, Christos Antonopoulos, Evangelos Topalis, Stavros Koubias
    in the 10th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (EFTA), 2005, pp. 1017 - 1024

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) allow wireless nodes to form a network without requiring a fixed Infrastructure Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) for mobile Ad Hoc network. It is a reactive source routing protocol for mobile IP network. Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) routing protocol is for mobile ad hoc networks. It can be made to operate in both reactive and proactive modes. It uses IMEP for link status and neighbor Connectivity sensing. Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) is used for link status and neighbor c- nnectivity sensing. It is used by the TORA routing protocol. One main challenge in design of these networks is their vulnerability to security attacks. In this paper, we study the threats an ad hoc network faces and the security goals to be achieved. We present and examine analytical simulation results for the routing protocols DSR and TORA network performance, using the well known network simulator OPNET 10.0. View full abstract»

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    Programming Logic

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 167
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Low temperature touch down and suppressing filler trapping bonding process with a wafer level pre-applied underfilling film adhesive

    Nonaka, T. ; Niizeki, S. ; Asahi, N. ; Fujimaru, K.
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2012 IEEE 62nd

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ECTC.2012.6248869
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 444 - 449
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Flip chip bonding process of the chip touch down at 40°C and suppressing the material trapping at the joint area with the wafer level NCF (Non conductive film), which is pre applied underfilling film adhesive, has been investigated. The test vehicle wafer has 25 μm diameter and 50 μm height bumps which are 10 μm height Cu pillar and 40 μm height Sn-Ag solder cap. The bump pitch was 200 μm. The 55 μm thickness 50 wt% filler loaded NCF was laminated on the wafer and then the surface was planarized with the bump solder layer exposing by the bit cutting technique. Such prepared chip was bonded as the top chip to the bottom chip which has the 25 μm diameter pad of 3 μm Cu bottom, 2 μm Ni middle and 0.1 μm Au top. To insert the sticking step in the bonding process, which melts and flows down the NCF underneath the top chip to the bottom chip partially, the chips were held well the aligned position during the successive processes. The gang bonding possibility was also proved with the four chips together bonding. PCT (pressure cooker test, 121°C and 100%Rh for 168 hours) was performed to the gang bonded samples. By shortening the joint formation step time form 25 to 5 seconds Cu diffusion into the solder bulk area was suppressed and the durable joint to the PCT was formed. It was confirmed by the cross sectional observations. View full abstract»

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    Design of anodically oxidized metal oxide films as a gas sensor material

    Hyodo, T. ; Ohoka, J. ; Shimizu, Y. ; Egashira, M.
    Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, 2005. Digest of Technical Papers. TRANSDUCERS '05. The 13th International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/SENSOR.2005.1497466
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1892 - 1895 Vol. 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    H2 sensing properties of an anodically oxidized Nb2O5 film coupled with a noble metal electrode (M/Nb2O5, M:Au, Pt and Pd) have been investigated under various operating conditions. Among the sensors tested, the Nb2O5 film with a Pd electrode, which was prepared by anodic oxidation in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M H2SO4, showed the highest H2 response, and the logarithmic sensor current under a forward bias was proportional to the logarithmic H2 concentration. The current-voltage characteristics of the Pd/Nb2O5 sensor at 100°C apparently showed a typical rectifying function of a metal-semiconductor junction, which was formed between the Pd electrode and the Nb2O5 thin film, especially in H2 balanced with dry air. The H2 response property was improved when it was operated under a forward bias above 150°C. Furthermore, it was confirmed that even at 28°C the Pd/Nb2O5 could respond to H2 in dry air. View full abstract»

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    Bonding of Bi2Te3 chips to alumina using Ag-In system for high temperature applications

    Lin, W.P. ; Lee, C.C.
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2011 IEEE 61st

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ECTC.2011.5898501
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 118 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for thermoelectric devices. In this research, Bi2Te3 chips of 9 mm × 9 mm were coated with 100 nm titanium (Ti) and 100 nm gold (Au) as barrier layer and plated with 10 μm Ag layer. Alumina substrates with 40 nm TiW and 2.5 μm Au were plated with 60 μm Ag, followed by 5 μm In and thin Ag cap layer for oxidation prevention. The Bi2Te3 chips were bonded to alumina substrates at 180°C in 0.1 torr vacuum with 100 psi static pressure. Despite significant difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) among materials used, the resulting joint did not break. It consists of five regions: Ag, (Ag), Ag2In, (Ag), and Ag, and has a melting temperature higher than 660°C. The bonded sample was annealed at 250°C for 200 hours. The barrier layer and the joint remain of high quality without any breakage. After annealing, the Ag2In compound region turns to a Ag-rich alloy layer with melting temperature higher than 690°C. Our bonding results demonstrate the superior characteristics of Ag-In system in high temperature applications. The success of this research opens the door of building thermoelectric modules for power generating or cooling applications, which require long-term operations at high temperature on the hot side. View full abstract»

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    Optimal and suboptimal relay selection and power allocation in multi-relay cooperative network

    Phuyal, U. ; Jha, S.C. ; Bhargava, V.K.
    Internet (AH-ICI), 2011 Second Asian Himalayas International Conference on

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/AHICI.2011.6113937
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    We study a cooperative communication scenario where multiple amplify-and-forward relays cooperate to transmit data from a source to destination. We discuss an optimal power allocation method to assign transmit powers to the source and relays in order to maximize achievable data rate of the system.We also propose less-complex suboptimal power allocation methods using various relay selection strategies. We provide simulation results to demonstrate performance of the optimal power allocation and suboptimal relay selection and power allocation schemes. We show that these suboptimal schemes perform close to optimal scheme and are more reasonable for practical implementation. View full abstract»

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    Improvement of voltage profile in Smart Grid using voltage sensitivity approach

    Singh, K.K. ; Kumar, R. ; Jha, R.C.
    Engineering and Systems (SCES), 2012 Students Conference on

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/SCES.2012.6199063
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The “Smart Grid” modernizes the aging power system and is characterised by two-way flow of electrical power and information within the network. Voltage stability is the prime concern of over stressed power system network. In Smart Grid, the overall voltage profile of the power network can be efficiently improved and thus avoids problems of voltage collapse and resultant blackouts. A simulation work has been done where reactive power requirement at different buses is calculated that improves the voltage profile of the overall network with the proposed approach using voltage sensitivity at the buses and effective locations for reactive power injection within the buses is determined. Also an approach is presented for capacitor bank operation associated to a bus. Voltage stability assessment considering different voltage stability indices is done under different system conditions that give vital information about the network (including weak buses & lines, maximum loading, most secure buses etc.) and these assessments can be very helpful in taking decisions to avoid uneven outages. View full abstract»

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    High resolution microresonator-based digital temperature sensor

    Jha, C.M. ; Bahl, G. ; Melamud, R. ; Chandorkar, S.A. ; Hopcroft, M.A. ; Kim, B. ; Agarwal, M. ; Salvia, J. ; Mehta, H. ; Kenny, T.W.
    Applied Physics Letters

    Volume: 91 , Issue: 7
    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1063/1.2768629
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 074101 - 074101-3
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    AIP Journals & Magazines

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    Encapsulated MEMS resonators — A technology path for MEMS into Frequency Control applications

    Kim, B. ; Melamud, R. ; Candler, R.A. ; Hopcroft, M.A. ; Jha, C.M. ; Chandorkar, S. ; Kenny, T.W.
    Frequency Control Symposium (FCS), 2010 IEEE International

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/FREQ.2010.5556386
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    MEMS resonators have been discussed as replacements for quartz crystals in electronics timing applications for more than 40 years. The emergence of high-quality, low-cost packaging for MEMS resonators has enabled the first demonstrations of long-term stability and opened the door for commercial applications. View full abstract»

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    QoS Guaranteed Resource Allocation in Cooperative Cellular Network with MIMO-Based Relays

    Phuyal, U. ; Jha, S.C. ; Bhargava, V.K.
    Communications (ICC), 2011 IEEE International Conference on

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/icc.2011.5963237
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Relay-based cooperative transmission in cellular wireless networks has been an area of tremendous research recently. Since MIMO technique has been shown to increase the spectral efficiency significantly, relays with MIMO antennas seem to be potential candidate for future cooperative cellular system in order to achieve reliable transmission, high system throughput and extended network coverage. In this paper, we study a cellular system scenario where quality of service (QoS) of multiple data streams originating from a base station (BS) targeted to multiple mobile stations (MSs) is guaranteed by using pre-installed relay stations (RSs) with MIMO antennas. We propose a low-complexity algorithm to design precoder matrices at BS and RS by using joint zero-forcing strategy to avoid multiuser interference in the signal received at the MSs via both the direct path (BS-MS) and the relay path (BS-RS-MS). The proposed algorithm guarantees a predefined signal-to-noise ratio at each user within the transmit power constraint at BS and with the minimal sum transmit power of BS and RS. Simulation results show that proposed algorithm outperforms the singular value decomposition (SVD)-based scheme existing in the literature by keeping the outage probability lower. Moreover, the performance of proposed algorithm compared to that of SVD-based scheme is further improved when the RS is not situated directly between the BS and the MSs. View full abstract»

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