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    Low-temperature wafer bonding using sub-micron gold particles for wafer-level MEMS packaging

    Ishida, H. ; Ogashiwa, T. ; Kanehira, Y. ; Ito, S. ; Yazaki, T. ; Mizuno, J.
    Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration (LTB-3D), 2012 3rd IEEE International Workshop on

    DOI: 10.1109/LTB-3D.2012.6238083
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 173

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Low-temperature wafer bonding using sub-μm gold particles together with wafer-level pattern transfer method has been developed. Sub-μm Au particle patterns were successfully transferred at 150°C and wafer bonding was performed at 200°C. Surface compliant performance was demonstrated by compression deformation measurement. View full abstract»

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    Missing solder ball failure mechanisms in plastic ball grid array packages

    Zhong, C.H. ; Yi, S. ; Mui, Y.C. ; Howe, C.P. ; Olsen, D. ; Chen, W.T.
    Electronic Components & Technology Conference, 2000. 2000 Proceedings. 50th

    DOI: 10.1109/ECTC.2000.853139
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 151 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Plastic ball grid array packages were aged at 125 and 150°C for different time intervals from 4 to 2000 hours. Various solder ball pad metallurgy including pure Ni barrier layer (electrolytic plating) with Au protective layer from 0.48 to 1.27 μm, Ni-P barrier layer (electroless plating) with 0.48 μm Au protective layer and Ni-Co barrier layer with Au layer from 0.52 to 1.46 μm were studied. Solder ball shear test was conducted at each time interval of aging. Solder ball shear strength decreased after initial hardening stage. The deterioration of solder ball shear strength was found mainly caused by the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers, together with microstructure coarsening and diffusion related porosity at the interface. Sn forms different intermetallic compound layers with different Ni barrier layer. For ball pad metallurgy in this studied, two intermetallic compound layers formed after aging. A critical Au thickness value was found between 0.48 μm to 0.7 μm for electrolytic Ni. If Au protective layer is thinner than the critical value, separate (Au, Ni)Sn4 IMC particles form on surface of Ni, Sn4. If Au layer is thicker than the critical value, a continuous (Au, Ni)Sn4 layer forms on top of Ni3Sn 4. Thick Au layer and high aging temperature result in formation of thicker (Au, Ni)Sn4 intermetallic compound layer in short time. For electrolytic Ni/Co plating, the critical Au thickness is thinner than pure electrolytic Ni plating in terms of continuous (Au, Ni, Co), Sny intermetallic compound layer formation. In shear test, fracture occurs at either interfaces or in the layer with the lowest shear strength. Once two continuous intermetallic compound layers formed, the fracture tends to occur at their interface. It was found that the bonding strength between (Au, Ni, Co),Sny and (Ni, Co)3Sn4 is higher than that between (Au, Ni)Sn4 and Ni3Sn4. For ball pad metallurgy do not form two continuous intermetallic compound layers, the shear strength decrease due to the coarsening of microstructure, intermetallic particle formation and diffusion related porosity on surface of Ni3Sn4. A Phosphorus rich layer forms at the interface between Ni3Sn4 and Ni-P barrier layer after aging, fracture at this interface is not the dominate failure mode for electroless Ni/Au metallurgy View full abstract»

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    Design of anodically oxidized metal oxide films as a gas sensor material

    Hyodo, T. ; Ohoka, J. ; Shimizu, Y. ; Egashira, M.
    Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, 2005. Digest of Technical Papers. TRANSDUCERS '05. The 13th International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/SENSOR.2005.1497466
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1892 - 1895 Vol. 2

    IEEE Conference Publications

    H2 sensing properties of an anodically oxidized Nb2O5 film coupled with a noble metal electrode (M/Nb2O5, M:Au, Pt and Pd) have been investigated under various operating conditions. Among the sensors tested, the Nb2O5 film with a Pd electrode, which was prepared by anodic oxidation in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M H2SO4, showed the highest H2 response, and the logarithmic sensor current under a forward bias was proportional to the logarithmic H2 concentration. The current-voltage characteristics of the Pd/Nb2O5 sensor at 100°C apparently showed a typical rectifying function of a metal-semiconductor junction, which was formed between the Pd electrode and the Nb2O5 thin film, especially in H2 balanced with dry air. The H2 response property was improved when it was operated under a forward bias above 150°C. Furthermore, it was confirmed that even at 28°C the Pd/Nb2O5 could respond to H2 in dry air. View full abstract»

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    Reduced Gold-Plating on Copper Leads for Thermocompression Bonding-Part I: Initial Characterization

    Panousis, N. ; Hall, P.
    Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 13 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TPHP.1977.1135201
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 305 - 309
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this two part series, Au-plated Cu leads with reduced Au thicknesses are evaluated for thermocompression (TC) bonding. Part I is concerned with initial characterization, which makes use of recent measurements of grain boundary diffusion coefficients (D') of Cu through Au. Part II considers the problem of predicting the long term reliability (40 years at 50°C) of these TC bonds, using recent measurements of the volume interdiffusion coefficients (D). Oxygen-free Cu leads plated with as little as 0.7 µm Au were compared to the more typical plating thickness of about 2.5 µm. The properties evaluated in Part I are: 1) initial TC bondability; and 2) prebond shelf life, i.e., TC bondability after storage of the Au-plated leads. Results of these evaluations are the following. 1) Leads plated with as little as 0.7 µm Au can have acceptable initial TC bond strengths especially when bonded at 30 to 50 percent deformation. 2) High-temperature storage of the leads followed by TC bonding indicates a shelf life of greater than two years at 50°C. This is in agreement with predictions based on grain boundary diffusion of Cu through Au: D' = 8 x 10-5exp (-0.91 eV/kT) [cm2/s]. Thus the initial characterization was successful for Au thicknesses down to 0.7 µm. View full abstract»

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    Fluxless Bonding of Bismuth Telluride Chips to Alumina Using Ag–In System for High Temperature Thermoelectric Devices

    Lin, W.P. ; Lee, C.C.
    Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 1 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2011.2160944
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1311 - 1318
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for thermoelectric devices. In this paper, the fluxless bonding process was developed to bond Bi2Te3 chips to alumina substrates for high temperature applications. The silver-indium (Ag-In) system was chosen for the process development. To work with this system, the Bi2Te3 chips were coated with 100 nm titanium (Ti) and 100 nm gold (Au) as barrier layer and plated with 10 μm Ag layer. The Bi2Te3 samples were annealed at 250°C for 200 h. No interdiffusion between Bi2Te3 and Ag was detected. The Ti/Au barrier layer was not affected either. It showed exceptional step coverage on the rough Bi2Te3 surface even after the annealing process. To prepare for bonding, alumina substrates with 40 nm TiW and 2.5 μm Au were plated with 60 μm Ag, followed by 5 μm In and thin Ag cap layer for oxidation prevention. The Bi2Te3 chips were bonded to alumina substrates at 180°C. No flux was used. The resulting void-free joint consists of five regions: Ag, (Ag), Ag2In, (Ag) and Ag. (Ag) is Ag-rich solid solution. The joint has a melting temperature higher than 660 °C. Due to the thick ductile Ag layer on alumina, the Bi2Te3 chip did not break after bonding despite its significant coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch with alumina. View full abstract»

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    Reliability and Au-concentration in OLB solder fillets of TAB-devices having a 75 μm pitch

    Zakel, E. ; Villain, J. ; Reichl, H.
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1994. Proceedings., 44th

    DOI: 10.1109/ECTC.1994.367524
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 883 - 893

    IEEE Conference Publications

    TAB-OLB contacts having 75 μm pitch were applied in a detailed long term reliability test programme. A variation of the Au-concentration in the OLB solder fillet was made using tapes with different thicknesses of the Au-tape metallization of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 μm. Pull tests and corresponding metallurgical investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal Au-thickness for best reliability performance. Compared to the OL-bonds having high Au-concentrations (0.8 and 1.2 μm Au-tape metallization), the samples with low Au-concentrations (0.2 and 0.5 μm Au) show lower mechanical pull test values after bonding, thermal aging and thermal cycling. This can be attributed to the improvement of solder wetting behaviour due to higher Au-concentrations. Additional the improved solder fillet formation leads to a better mechanical performance of the whole contact. The presence of intermetallic Au-Sn phases does not affect the reliability even after severe thermal cycling treatment. The Au-concentration in the solder fillet of the present study are all well below the critical value of 10 wt%, so that Kirkendall pore formation in the ternary Cu-Sn-Au system is not the main failure mechanism. The formation of ternary Cu-Au-Sn intermetallic compounds causes a continuous decrease of the copper lead thickness. A new aspect is the growth limitation of the compounds due to the limited amount of Sn in the fillet. The formation of Kirkendall-voids and the growth of the ternary compounds of the type (CuAu)6Sn5 stop, when Sn in the solder fillet is totally consumed. This is accompanied with a coagulation of already formed Kirkendall-pores causing an annealing effect of pull-test values after extended thermal aging treatments (155°C, 500-1000 hours) View full abstract»

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    Programming Languages

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 339
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Magnetic properties of fcc‐Fe multilayer (invited) (abstract)

    Matsui, M. ; Doi, M. ; Kida, A. ; Yamada, Y.
    Journal of Applied Physics

    Volume: 79 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1063/1.362248
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 5583

    AIP Journals & Magazines

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    Low temperature touch down and suppressing filler trapping bonding process with a wafer level pre-applied underfilling film adhesive

    Nonaka, T. ; Niizeki, S. ; Asahi, N. ; Fujimaru, K.
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2012 IEEE 62nd

    DOI: 10.1109/ECTC.2012.6248869
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 444 - 449
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Flip chip bonding process of the chip touch down at 40°C and suppressing the material trapping at the joint area with the wafer level NCF (Non conductive film), which is pre applied underfilling film adhesive, has been investigated. The test vehicle wafer has 25 μm diameter and 50 μm height bumps which are 10 μm height Cu pillar and 40 μm height Sn-Ag solder cap. The bump pitch was 200 μm. The 55 μm thickness 50 wt% filler loaded NCF was laminated on the wafer and then the surface was planarized with the bump solder layer exposing by the bit cutting technique. Such prepared chip was bonded as the top chip to the bottom chip which has the 25 μm diameter pad of 3 μm Cu bottom, 2 μm Ni middle and 0.1 μm Au top. To insert the sticking step in the bonding process, which melts and flows down the NCF underneath the top chip to the bottom chip partially, the chips were held well the aligned position during the successive processes. The gang bonding possibility was also proved with the four chips together bonding. PCT (pressure cooker test, 121°C and 100%Rh for 168 hours) was performed to the gang bonded samples. By shortening the joint formation step time form 25 to 5 seconds Cu diffusion into the solder bulk area was suppressed and the durable joint to the PCT was formed. It was confirmed by the cross sectional observations. View full abstract»

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    Bonding of Bi2Te3 chips to alumina using Ag-In system for high temperature applications

    Lin, W.P. ; Lee, C.C.
    Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2011 IEEE 61st

    DOI: 10.1109/ECTC.2011.5898501
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 118 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for thermoelectric devices. In this research, Bi2Te3 chips of 9 mm × 9 mm were coated with 100 nm titanium (Ti) and 100 nm gold (Au) as barrier layer and plated with 10 μm Ag layer. Alumina substrates with 40 nm TiW and 2.5 μm Au were plated with 60 μm Ag, followed by 5 μm In and thin Ag cap layer for oxidation prevention. The Bi2Te3 chips were bonded to alumina substrates at 180°C in 0.1 torr vacuum with 100 psi static pressure. Despite significant difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) among materials used, the resulting joint did not break. It consists of five regions: Ag, (Ag), Ag2In, (Ag), and Ag, and has a melting temperature higher than 660°C. The bonded sample was annealed at 250°C for 200 hours. The barrier layer and the joint remain of high quality without any breakage. After annealing, the Ag2In compound region turns to a Ag-rich alloy layer with melting temperature higher than 690°C. Our bonding results demonstrate the superior characteristics of Ag-In system in high temperature applications. The success of this research opens the door of building thermoelectric modules for power generating or cooling applications, which require long-term operations at high temperature on the hot side. View full abstract»

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    Semantic Foundations

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 19
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Reduced Gold-Plating on Copper Leads for Thermocompression Bonding--Part II: Long Term Reliability

    Panousis, N. ; Hall, P.
    Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 13 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TPHP.1977.1135202
    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 309 - 313
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This two-part series is an evaluation of the acceptability for thermocompression (TC) bonding of Cu leads having reduced thicknesses of Au-plating at the bond sites. Part I was concerned with initial characterization which made use of recent grain boundary diffusion work in the Cu-Au system. In this second part, long term reliability is considered where use is made of recent work in volume interdiffusion in the Cu-Au system. Three properties are evaluated: 1) Long term reliability based on accelerated aging of bonded leads; 2) temperature cycling; and 3) cyclic 45° bend fatigue. Results of these evaluations are the following. 1) A lifetime of greater than 40 years at 50° C is predicted for Cu leads with as little as 0.7 µm Au-plating. This conclusion was reached using volume interdiffusion as the rate controlling mechanism for the observed decrease in strengths. The same conclusion was reached from a statistical analysis of the lifetime data without making recourse to a physical model for the degradation. 2) No degradation in bond strength was observed for up through 300 temperature cycles between -40 and +150°C. 3) Cyclic 45° bend fatigue of the bonded leads was not affected by the Au-plating thicknesses studied. In summary, when the results of both parts are combined, the overall conclusion is that oxygen-free Cu leads plated with as little as 0.7 µm Au are judged acceptable for TC bonding. View full abstract»

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    Reliability and Au-concentration in OLB solder fillets of TAB-devices having a 75 μm pitch

    Zakel, E. ; Villain, J. ; Reichl, H.
    Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part B: Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/96.486496
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 138 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    TAB-OLB contacts having 75-μm pitch were applied in a detailed long-term reliability test program. A variation of the Au-concentration in the OLB solder fillet was made using tapes with different thicknesses of the Au-tape metallization of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.2 μm. Pull tests and corresponding metallurgical investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal Au-thickness for best reliability performance. Compared to the OL-bonds having high Au-concentrations (0.8 and 1.2 m Au-tape metallization), the samples with low Au-concentrations (0.2 and 0.5 μm Au) show lower mechanical pull test values after bonding, thermal aging, and thermal cycling. From the variation of Au-metallization thickness the tapes with 0.8 μm have the best reliability performance. This can be attributed to the improvement of solder wetting behavior due to higher Au-concentrations. Additionally the improved solder fillet formation leads to a better mechanical performance of the whole contact. The presence of intermetallic Au-Sn phases does not affect the reliability even after severe thermal cycling treatment. The Au-concentration in the solder fillet of the present study are all well below the critical value of 10 at.%, so that Kirkendall pore formation in the ternary Cu-Sn-Au system is not the main failure mechanism. The formation of ternary Cu-Au-Sn intermetallic compounds causes a continuous decrease of the copper lead thickness. A new aspect is the growth limitation of the compounds due to the limited amount of Sn in the fillet. The formation of Kirkendall-voids and the growth of the ternary compounds of the type (CuAu)6Sn5 stop when Sn in the solder fillet is totally consumed. This is accompanied with a coagulation of already formed Kirkendall-pores causing an annealing effect of pull-test values after extended thermal aging treatments (155°C, 500-1000 h) View full abstract»

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    Programming Logic

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 167
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Concurrency

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 495
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Mobility

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 597
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    Contributors

    Plotkin, G. ; Stirling, C. ; Tofte, M.
    Proof, Language, and Interaction:Essays in Honour of Robin Milner

    Page(s): 721 - 722
    Copyright Year: 2000

    MIT Press eBook Chapters

    This collection of original essays reflects the breadth of current research in computer science. Robin Milner, a major figure in the field, has made many fundamental contributions, particularly in theoretical computer science, the theory of programming languages, and functional programming languages.Following a brief biography of Milner, the book contains five sections: Semantic Foundations, Programming Logic, Programming Languages, Concurrency, and Mobility. Together the pieces convey a seamless whole, ranging from highly abstract concepts to systems of great utility.Contributors : Samson Abramsky, J. C. M. Baeten, Sergey Berezin, J. A. Bergstra, Gérard Berry, Lars Birkedal, Gérard Boudol, Edmund Clarke, Pierre Collette, Robert L. Constable, Pierre-Louis Curien, Jaco de Bakker, Uffe H. Engberg, William Ferreira, Fabio Gadducci, Mike Gordon, Robert Harper, Matthew Hennessy, Yoram Hirshfeld, C. A. R. Hoare, Gérard Huet, Paul B. Jackson, Alan S. A. Jeffrey, Somesh Jha, He Jifeng, Cliff B. Jones, Cosimo Laneve, Xinxin Liu, Will Marrero, Faron Moller, Ugo Montanari, Pavel Naumov, Mogens Nielsen, Joachim Parrow, Lawrence C. Paulson, Benjamin C. Pierce, Gordon Plotkin, M. A. Reniers, Amokrane Saïbi, Augusto Sampaio, Davide Sangiorgi, Scott A. Smolka, Eugene W. Stark, Christopher Stone, Mads Tofte, David N. Turner, Juan Uribe, Franck van Breugel, David Walker, Glynn Winskel. View full abstract»

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    RF MEMS Capacitive Switches for Wide Temperature Range Applications Using a Standard Thin-Film Process

    Mahameed, R. ; Rebeiz, G.M.
    Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 59 , Issue: 7
    DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2135376
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1746 - 1752
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and measurements of a capacitive RF microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch with very low sensitivity to thermal stress is presented. The switch is built by thin-film technology (0.8-μm Au) and shows <;50-mV/°C variation in the pull-down voltage at 25 °C-125 °C. The effects of the residual biaxial stress and stress gradients are studied in detail and the final switch design is very tolerant to a wide range of stress. The switch exhibits excellent RF and mechanical performances, and a capacitance ratio of about 51-57 (Cu = 54-66 fF, Cd = 3.1 - 3.4 pF) is reported. The mechanical resonant frequency and quality factor are fο = 105 - 115 kHz and Qm ≈ 8, respectively, with a measured switching time of about 3-3.8 μs. The applications areas are in low-loss RF MEMS, phase shifters, and reconfigurable networks. View full abstract»

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    Low temperature bonding using sub-micron Au particles for wafer-level MEMS packaging

    Ito, S. ; Mizuno, J. ; Ishida, H. ; Ogashiwa, T. ; Kanehira, Y. ; Murai, H. ; Wakai, F. ; Shoji, S.
    CPMT Symposium Japan, 2012 2nd IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ICSJ.2012.6523451
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this study, low temperature bonding using sub-micron Au particles was investigated. Two types of Au particles with different average mean diameter of 0.1 μm and 0.3 μm were used. The 0.1 μm Au particles were sintered at lower temperature than that of 0.3 μm. These particles have an advantage of low sintering temperature under 200 °C, and compensating surface roughness. The compression deformation properties of Au particles were measured. They were compressed to around 3 and 5 μm at 30 and 100 MPa applied pressure, respectively. Chip-level bonding was performed with sealing rings of Au particles. The tensile strength of 55.2 MPa was obtained by bonding under applied pressure of 50 MPa at 100 °C. As the evaluation of hermeticity, gross leak test was performed for bonded chips with single, double, and triple sealing rings. View full abstract»

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    Experience in Design Optimization of Induction Motor Using 'SUMT' Algorithm

    Singh, B. ; Singh, B.P. ; Murthy, S.S. ; Jha, C.S.
    Power Engineering Review, IEEE

    Volume: PER-3 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/MPER.1983.5520080
    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 34

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    First Page of the Article
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    Optimization of Discontinuous Reception (DRX) for Mobile Internet Applications over LTE

    Jha, S.C. ; Koç, A.T. ; Vannithamby, R.
    Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2012 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2012.6399035
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (10)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Discontinuous reception (DRX) brings power saving at user equipment (UE) at the cost of increased delay in 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) network. While configuring DRX parameters, a tradeoff between power saving and delay is inevitable in practice. For example, delay is crucial factor for delay sensitive applications such as online gaming, while power saving becomes the main concern for social networking applications. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to efficiently select DRX parameters to ensure a balanced tradeoff between these two conflicting performance parameters depending on application's delay requirement and UE power constraint. The proposed scheme is capable of optimizing one of these performance parameters while satisfying a specified level of guarantee for the other. Simulation results show that proposed algorithm is able to increase the power saving significantly by efficiently selecting the DRX parameters. For example, smart selection of DRX cycle for given inactivity timer increases the power saving by more than 40% depending on the delay requirement. Simulation results further show that proposed algorithm provides higher flexibility in DRX parameter selection by allowing a DRX parameter to be relaxed with the adjustment in other DRX parameter without any performance degradation. View full abstract»

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    Optimal COTS selection for fault tolerant software system with mandatory redundancy in critical modules using consensus recovery block scheme under fuzzy environment

    Jha, P.C. ; Bali, S.
    Recent Advances in Computing and Software Systems (RACSS), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/RACSS.2012.6212680
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 273 - 280

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The dependence of mankind on software systems has made it necessary to produce highly reliable software. Software reliability is the major dynamic attribute of the software quality. Hence, it is essential to ensure software reliability for software products. The computer revolution has benefited society and increased the global productivity, but a major threat of this revolution is that the world has become critically dependent on the computing systems for proper functioning and timing of all its activities. While designing software it becomes very important to identify the critical modules in a software system. A system can be made fault tolerant by adding redundant components. Adding redundancy in critical modules may increase the reliability of the system and hence prevents system failure. So this paper aims at optimal selection of COTS components by minimizing the absolute deviational execution time by simultaneously maximizing the system reliability with a constraint on criticality of modules under fuzzy environment. View full abstract»

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    Encapsulated MEMS resonators — A technology path for MEMS into Frequency Control applications

    Kim, B. ; Melamud, R. ; Candler, R.A. ; Hopcroft, M.A. ; Jha, C.M. ; Chandorkar, S. ; Kenny, T.W.
    Frequency Control Symposium (FCS), 2010 IEEE International

    DOI: 10.1109/FREQ.2010.5556386
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    MEMS resonators have been discussed as replacements for quartz crystals in electronics timing applications for more than 40 years. The emergence of high-quality, low-cost packaging for MEMS resonators has enabled the first demonstrations of long-term stability and opened the door for commercial applications. View full abstract»

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    Energy-Aware Resource Allocation for Cooperative Cellular Network Using Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

    Devarajan, R. ; Jha, S.C. ; Phuyal, U. ; Bhargava, V.K.
    Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 11 , Issue: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2012.030512.110895
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1797 - 1807
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Energy consumption in wireless communication system is rapidly increasing due to growing wireless multimedia access. Combating adverse effects of excessive energy consumption demands for energy-aware system design, leading to a new research paradigm called green communication. In this paper, we propose user selection and power allocation schemes for a multi-user, multi-relay cooperative cellular system in order to minimize the cost of transmission. In the proposed schemes, the cost function is first formulated to optimize the weighted sum powers of base and relay stations. It is then extended to a more general multi-objective scheme which jointly optimizes the sum power and throughput keeping a balance between them. In both of the schemes, quality-of-service is guaranteed in terms of end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. To make the proposed schemes realistic, we assume the presence of estimation errors in channel state information. An algorithm to enhance fairness among users in these schemes is also presented. Simulation results are presented to confirm the performance of proposed schemes in terms of energy efficiency, system throughput, outage probability, and fairness to end users. View full abstract»

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    Medium access control in distributed cognitive radio networks

    Jha, S.C. ; Rashid, M.M. ; Bhargava, V.K. ; Despins, C.
    Wireless Communications, IEEE

    Volume: 18 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MWC.2011.5999763
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 41 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Since cognitive radio technology can significantly boost spectrum utilization by exploiting radio spectrum unused by licensed users, it is rapidly gaining popularity and inspiring numerous applications. However, many technical issues still need to be addressed for successful deployment of CR networks, especially in the MAC layer. We focus on CR networks that have distributed architecture because they offer ease of deployment, self-organizing capability, and flexibility in design, and are believed to be more practical for future deployments compared to their centralized counterparts. The MAC protocols for distributed CR networks should consider the key features of these networks such as lack of a central unit to coordinate the communication, dynamic topology, requirements to keep interference to primary users minimal, and variation of spectrum availability with time and location. To clarify the relevant research challenges and issues, we provide a detailed study of the critical design issues and an overview of current state-of-the-art MAC protocols proposed for DCRNs. A classification of existing proposals is provided, and their salient features, advantages, and limitations are discussed. We then introduce and study a novel MAC protocol that addresses some of the research issues better than existing solutions. We also highlight important research challenges that could drive future research in this area. View full abstract»

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