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    Minimize frequency fluctuations of isolated power system with wind farm by using superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Wei Xian ; Yuan, Weijia ; Yu Yan ; Coombs, T.A.
    Power Electronics and Drive Systems, 2009. PEDS 2009. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/PEDS.2009.5385791
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1329 - 1332
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind power generation as one of the most popular renewable energy applications is absorbing more and more attention all over the world. However, output power fluctuations of wind farm due to random variations of wind speed can cause network frequency and voltage flicker in power systems. The power quality consequently declines, particularly in an isolated power system such as the power system in a remote community or a small island. This paper proposes an application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) to minimize output fluctuations of an isolated power system with wind farm. The isolated power system is fed by a diesel generator and a wind generator consisting of a wind turbine and squirrel cage induction machine. The control strategy is detailed and the proposed system is evaluated by simulation in Matlab/Simulink. View full abstract»

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    A novel Modulated Power Filter Compensator scheme for standalone wind energy utilization systems

    Aboul-Seoud, T. ; Sharaf, A.M.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2009. CCECE '09. Canadian Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2009.5090160
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 390 - 393
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Renewable energy sources have the ability to provide electric power in rural areas whenever available. Although it is cheap, clean and abundant, the variation of output power with the variation of wind speed can cause significant power quality issues, especially in the case of a standalone generation system. This paper studies a network presenting a rural load, such as a small village, fed from a wind driven separately excited (SE) squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG). The effect of wind speed on the power quality is illustrated via simulation. The introduction of the modulated power filter compensator (MPFC) to the network establishes a significant improvement to the power quality. The proposed MPFC is a cheap and robust FACTS based device. It is controlled via a tri-loop dynamic error-driven PI controller. This scheme proved its ability to introduce a significant improvement which is illustrated via comparing the simulation results of the studied network with and without the MPFC. View full abstract»

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    Simple maximum power extraction control for permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind energy conversion system

    Hussein, M.M. ; Senjyu, T. ; Orabi, M. ; Wahab, M.A.A. ; Hamada, M.M.
    Electronics, Communications and Computers (JEC-ECC), 2012 Japan-Egypt Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/JEC-ECC.2012.6186982
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 194 - 199
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A new and simple maximum power extraction control strategy is proposed for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed wind energy conversion system (VSWECS). The PMSG is connected to the grid through a switch mode rectifier and a three phase voltage source (VSI) inverter. The generator side switch mode rectifier is controlled to achieve maximum power from wind. Simple estimating of PMSG generator speed, using estimated generator speed to calculate mechanical power generated from wind, and optimum power coefficient can be achieved from the relation governed the generator speed and mechanical power. The grid side voltage source inverter uses a hysteresis current controller to supply power at unity power factor into the grid. Extensive simulations have been performed using MATALB/SIMULINK. Simulation results show that the controller can extract maximum power from the wind and achieve unity power factor at the grid with different wind speed. View full abstract»

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    Intelligent mechanical sensorless MPPT control for wind energy systems

    Wei Qiao
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345443
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind energy systems (WESs) are usually equipped with mechanical sensors to measure wind speed, rotor shaft speed, and generator rotor position/speed for system monitoring, control, and protection. The use of these sensors increases cost, size, weight, and hardware wiring complexity and reduces reliability of WESs. The problems incurred in using mechanical sensors can be solved through mechanical sensorless control. This paper presents the principles of mechanical sensorless maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for WESs based on an overview of existing work on the subject. Several intelligent mechanical sensorless control algorithms for WESs are presented, including: 1) a hill-climb search (HCS)-based wind speed sensor-less MPPT control algorithm, 2) various artificial neural network (ANN)-based wind speed sensorless MPPT control algorithms, and 3) an ANN-sliding mode observer (SMO)-based wind speed, generator rotor position and shaft speed sensorless MPPT control algorithm. The effectiveness of these intelligent mechanical sensorless MPPT control algorithms are demonstrated by computer simulations as well as experiments on practical WESs. View full abstract»

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    Frequency domain analysis of flicker produced by wind energy conversions systems

    Amaris, H. ; Vilar, C. ; Usaola, J. ; Rodriguez, J.L.
    Harmonics and Quality of Power Proceedings, 1998. Proceedings. 8th International Conference On

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ICHQP.1998.760203
    Publication Year: 1998 , Page(s): 1162 - 1167 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) may produce greater power fluctuations than other forms of generation, resulting in voltage fluctuations and flicker. This fact may become a serious limitation to wind generation on weak networks. According to Standard UIE, for quantifying flicker at the point of common coupling (PCC), and to obtain the Pst parameter, it is necessary to measure the voltage for about 10 minutes. For this reason, time domain simulations require very long solution times. In this paper, a frequency domain analysis method is proposed, which allows to obtain the Pst parameter from the spectrum of the RMS voltage fluctuation. Results of simulations of a wind turbine MADE-AE41 in the time and frequency domains show good agreement View full abstract»

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    The Beneficial Role of SMES Coil in DC Lines as an Energy Buffer for Integrating Large Scale Wind Power

    Taesik Nam ; Jae Woong Shim ; Kyeon Hur
    Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 22 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2011.2175686
    Publication Year: 2012 , Article#: 5701404
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Wind energy resources are accounting for an ever-greater portion of the many nations' generation portfolios to address global climate change concerns and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Increasing the role of wind in the power generation mix, however, presents significant operational challenges in ensuring the grid security and power quality due to the inherent resource variability. This paper addresses the integration of large-scale wind resources into the grid through DC lines incorporating SMES coil: Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) type wind power plant linked by line-commutated HVDC with and without SMES is investigated using PSCAD/EMTDC for various operating scenarios. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of applying SMES coil in the DC line for mitigating the wind power intermittency and for improving its dispatchability and quality. Enhanced robustness for AC and DC faults due to the SMES coil and its benefits are also discussed. View full abstract»

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    Design and modelling of grid-connected PMSG-based wind energy conversion through diode rectifier, DC/DC and DC/AC converters

    Daming Zhang ; Tseng, K.J.
    Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), 2014 Australasian Universities

    DOI: 10.1109/AUPEC.2014.6966520
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a design and optimization method to harness wind energy using PMSG, diode rectifier, boost DC/DC converter and grid-connected VSI DC/AC inverter with LCL filter. A systematic procedure has been adopted to design the system to extract maximum power for a given wind speed. The design methodology has been verified by Simulink based platform. The system operates up to its design target, which extracts almost the maximum power for a given wind speed. View full abstract»

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    A Battery Energy Storage interface for wind power systems with the use of grid side inverter

    Jayasinghe, S.D.G. ; Vilathgamuwa, D.M. ; Madawala, U.K.
    Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2010 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2010.5618328
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3786 - 3791
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a novel concept of Energy Storage System (ESS) interfacing with the grid side inverter in wind energy conversion systems. The inverter system used here is formed by cascading a 2-level inverter and a three level inverter through a coupling transformer. The constituent inverters are named as the “main inverter” and the “auxiliary inverter” respectively. The main inverter is connected with the rectified output of the wind generator while the auxiliary inverter is attached to a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). The BESS ensures constant power dispatch to the grid irrespective of change in wind condition. Furthermore, this unique combination of BESS and inverter eliminates the need of additional dc-dc converters. Novel modulation and control techniques are proposed to address the problem of non-integer, dynamically-changing dc-link voltage ratio, which is due to random wind changes. Strategies used to handle auxiliary inverter dc-link voltage imbalances and controllers used to charge batteries at different rates are explained in detail. Simulation results are presented to verify the efficacy of the proposed modulation and control techniques in suppressing random wind power fluctuations. View full abstract»

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    Control and Dynamic Analysis of Grid Connected Variable Speed SCIG Based Wind Energy Conversion System

    Manaullah, M. ; Sharma, A.K. ; Ahuja, H. ; Bhuvaneswari, G. ; Balasubramanian, R.
    Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), 2012 Fourth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CICN.2012.74
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 588 - 593
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Strict environmental regulations and shrinkage of fossil fuels necessitate the generation of electrical power by using renewable energy sources. Wind energy is the most promising and popular source of green electricity. Wind energy conversion systems using SCIGs with full scale power converters is a meritorious option as these generators are simpler than the other types available and requires no brush or slip rings. SCIGs are easily available at lower cost, require low maintenance and rugged for any harsh environment. Further, improvements in power electronics makes this option attractive to be used for wind power generation at variable speeds. This paper proposes the modeling, simulation and analysis of an SCIG based WECS when the system operates under varying wind velocity conditions. Vector control strategy is employed for the converters connected, back to back, between generator and the power grid. Generator control is applied for power optimization when wind speed is less than rated speed and pitch control is applied for speeds higher than rated speed but below cut-out speed. Behavior of the same system is studied for single phase to ground fault as it is the most common and frequently occurring fault in power systems. View full abstract»

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    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Standalone Wind Energy Supply System

    Bhende, C.N. ; Mishra, S. ; Malla, S.G.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 2 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2011.2159253
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 361 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (29)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In this paper, a novel algorithm, based on dc link voltage, is proposed for effective energy management of a standalone permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based variable speed wind energy conversion system consisting of battery, fuel cell, and dump load (i.e., electrolyzer). Moreover, by maintaining the dc link voltage at its reference value, the output ac voltage of the inverter can be kept constant irrespective of variations in the wind speed and load. An effective control technique for the inverter, based on the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) scheme, has been developed to make the line voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) balanced when the load is unbalanced. Similarly, a proper control of battery current through dc-dc converter has been carried out to reduce the electrical torque pulsation of the PMSG under an unbalanced load scenario. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory and it can also maintain maximum power point tracking. View full abstract»

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    Power converter topologies and fractional-order controllers: Wind energy applications

    Melicio, R. ; Mendes, V.M.F. ; Catalao, J.P.S.
    Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDAM.2010.5542041
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1334 - 1338

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper is on wind energy conversion systems with full-power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator. Different topologies for the power-electronic converters are considered, namely matrix and two-level converters. Also, a new fractional-order control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of the wind turbines. Simulation studies are carried out in order to adequately assess the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid. Conclusions are duly drawn. View full abstract»

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    Frequency regulation of hybrid renewable energy system for large band wind speed variation

    Ray, P.K. ; Mohanty, S.R. ; Kishor, N.
    Power Systems, 2009. ICPS '09. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPWS.2009.5442729
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A proportional-plus-integral (PI) controlled based small-signal analysis of isolated autonomous hybrid system with different energy storage combinations is presented in this paper. The hybrid systems supplying power to isolated loads comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS), battery energy storage system (BESS). Large band wind speed based on Van der Hoven's model is also presented in this paper in order to analyze the frequency deviation due to mismatch between power generation and load demand. Further ultracapacitor (UC) as an energy storing element and PI controllers are incorporated in the hybrid system in order to improve the frequency deviation. A comparative assessment for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations and PI controller is carried out which reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profile in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other storage elements. View full abstract»

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    Contribution to frequency control through wind turbine inertial energy storage

    Teninge, A. ; Jecu, C. ; Roye, D. ; Bacha, S. ; Duval, J. ; Belhomme, R.
    Renewable Power Generation, IET

    Volume: 3 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2008.0078
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 358 - 370
    Cited by:  Papers (18)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    An innovative way for wind energy to participate in some sort of frequency control using kinetic energy stored in the rotor for a fast power reserve that could be delivered in a short period (from several seconds up to a few tens of seconds) is presented. This kinetic-energy-based fast reserve is ensured despite wind speed variations - a disoptimisation of the power coefficient through the modification of the rotor speed set point or through the pitch control. In case of a frequency drop, the power coefficient could then be increased to produce more energy. This approach could help to reduce the dynamics and the depth of the frequency drops and therefore allow wind farms to participate in frequency control. Basic economic aspects of the provision of fast power reserve by wind turbines as a function of the amount of reserve considered are also discussed. View full abstract»

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    Reinforcement-Learning-Based Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Chun Wei ; Zhe Zhang ; Wei Qiao ; Liyan Qu
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 62 , Issue: 10
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2015.2420792
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 6360 - 6370

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper proposes an intelligent maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) based on the reinforcement learning (RL) method. The model-free Q-learning algorithm is used by the controller of the WECS to learn a map from states to optimal control actions online by updating the action values according to the received rewards. The experienced action values are stored in a Q-table, based on which the maximum power points (MPPs) are obtained after a certain period of online learning. The learned MPPs are then used to generate an optimum speed-power curve for fast MPPT control of the WECS. Since RL enables the WECS to learn by directly interacting with the environment, knowledge of wind turbine parameters or wind speed information is not required. The proposed MPPT control algorithm is validated by simulation studies for a 1.5-MW doubly-fed induction generator-based WECS and experimental results for a 200-W permanent-magnet synchronous generator-based WECS emulator. View full abstract»

  • Open Access

    Offshore Wind Energy in Emerging Countries: A Decision Support System for the Assessment of Projects

    Koukal, A. ; Breitner, M.H.
    System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2014.115
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 865 - 874

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Energy consumption is constantly on the increase all over the world. Especially fast-growing economies in emerging countries contribute to this increase. In addition, the climate change effects of greenhouse gas emissions are becoming more and more evident. Today it has become necessary to expand renewable energies, and offshore wind energy in particular to emerging countries. We provide decision support for assessing projects and general financial conditions, respectively. To that end, research artifacts are constructed and evaluated according to the design science research (DSR) principles. A discounted cash flow (DCF) model in combination with a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to consider critical project risks forms the basis of our decision support system (DSS). The applicability of the DSS is evaluated with an offshore wind project in Brazil. According to Green information systems (IS), our DSS contributes to economic sustainability. View full abstract»

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    A novel three-phase rectifier with high power factor for wind energy conversion systems

    Silva, C.E.A. ; Oliveira, D.S. ; Barreto, L.H.S.C. ; Bascope, R.P.T.
    Power Electronics Conference, 2009. COBEP '09. Brazilian

    DOI: 10.1109/COBEP.2009.5347716
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 985 - 992
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper it is proposed a new topology of three-phase controlled rectifier feasible for high power wind energy conversion systems (WECS). This rectifier is based on the bridgeless rectifier, uses six wires of the generator, and allows the operation with high power factor, increasing the generator efficiency. One cycle control (OCC), which avoids the need of sinusoidal reference signals, was used in the rectifier control. This study is then concerned with the operation principle and experimental results obtained from a 5 kVA prototype. View full abstract»

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    A DSP control system for the grid-connected inverter in wind energy conversion system

    Yang Zhenkun ; Liang Hui ; Sun Chuanyang
    Electrical Machines and Systems, 2005. ICEMS 2005. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/ICEMS.2005.202707
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1050 - 1053 Vol. 2
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The development of power electronics leads to the idea of variable-speed direct-drive generators in the field of wind energy conversion system. This paper discusses the PWM converter used as the grid-connected inverter in the variable-speed direct-drive conversion system. The grid-connected inverter has to be controlled to maintain constant DC link voltage and to keep sinusoidal AC current at unity power factor. This paper introduces the principle of PWM converter whose DC voltage and AC current are controlled by the SICT control strategy which can obtain the bi-direction high dynamic features at a fixed switching frequency. The hardware and software of the DSP control system of the grid-connected inverter are presented subsequently. Experimental results show that the AC currents are close to sinusoidal being in-phase with the AC voltage and DC voltage can be maintained constant View full abstract»

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    Potential of wind and solar energy using Weibull and hargreaves method analysis

    Syafawati, A.N. ; Daut, I. ; Shema, S.S. ; Irwanto, M. ; Farhana, Z. ; Razliana, N. ; Shatri, C.
    Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO), 2011 5th International

    DOI: 10.1109/PEOCO.2011.5970436
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 144 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents an analysis of wind speed characteristics and solar radiation received in Perlis, Northern of Peninsular Malaysia. The characteristic of wind and solar is recorded per hour for a month using Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station. Recorded data is analyze using Weibull distribution function and Hargreaves method for wind and solar respectively. The analysis through Davis Vantage Pro2 Weather Station is then used to compare wind and solar data collected from Chuping station, Malaysian Meteorological Department. From overall of this work, the authors found that the potential of wind and solar energy through out Weibull and Hargreaves method is successfully analyzes. View full abstract»

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    Reliability comparison of power electronic converters used in grid-connected wind energy conversion system

    Arifujjaman, M. ; Liuchen Chang
    Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2012 3rd IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/PEDG.2012.6254021
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 323 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This work presents a reliability analysis of the power electronic converters for a grid-connected permanent magnet generator-based wind energy conversion system based on the semi conductor power losses. The power converters examined are: the intermediate boost converter (IBC), the intermediate buck-boost converter (IBBC), the back-to-back converter (BBC) and the matrix converter (MC). The aim is to determine which power electronic converter yields the highest mean time between failures (MTBF) and reliability in terms of power losses of the semiconductor devices with a predetermined wind speed. In view of this, a furled wind turbine model developed previously by the author is used to generate power for different wind speeds. Afterwards, a relation between the wind speed, power loss and MTBF is established to evaluate the reliability of the power electronic converters. The power loss model presented in this paper has taken into account the conduction and switching losses of the semiconductor devices within each converter. The analysis reveals that MTBF of an IBC is much higher compared to the other converters considered in this research. The investigation is extended to identify the least reliable component within the converters. It is shown that the inverter has the dominant effect on the system reliability for the converters. This research indicates that IBC with a simple rectifier is a much better option for grid-connected permanent magnet generator based wind energy conversion system. View full abstract»

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    Simplified sensorless maximum power point tracking strategy for DFIG wind energy conversion systems

    Siva, P. ; Ajay-D-Vimalraj, P. ; Priya, E.S.
    Science Engineering and Management Research (ICSEMR), 2014 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICSEMR.2014.7043548
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 8

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Efficient capturing of wind is the most important issue of wind energy conversion system, where the efficiency of the system can be improved. Various methods were available to improve MPPT like Hill Climbing Search (HCS) and Intelligence based HCS but they all need strong mathematical knowledge. A simple MPPT algorithm is proposed to solve this issue, which tracks the maximum power efficiently without sensing irregular wind speed. The complete model is developed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. View full abstract»

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    Simulation of a wind energy conversion embedded system

    Apostoaia, C. ; Kozel, D. ; Gray, D.
    Electro/Information Technology, 2007 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EIT.2007.4374528
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 140 - 145

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Flux and torque estimators are designed and simulated to validate their use for a wind energy conversion system at different wind speeds. The model formed by a wind turbine-gear-induction generator is used for the estimator models' derivation. Simulation results are provided indicating good estimator design and operation. View full abstract»

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    Modeling, simulation and control of grid connected Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)-based small wind energy conversion system

    Arifujjaman, M.
    Electric Power and Energy Conference (EPEC), 2010 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/EPEC.2010.5697174
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A small scale wind energy conversion system has tremendous diversity of use and operating conditions, and consequently is evolving rapidly along with the large scale wind energy conversion system for generation of electricity in either stand-alone or grid connected applications. In recent years, the grid connected small wind turbine industry is primarily dominated by the Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) machines. The power conditioning systems for grid connection of the PMG-based system requires a rectifier, boost converter and a grid-tie inverter. Such system should be based on an appropriate control strategy to control the aerodynamic power during high wind speed, maximum power production, and maximum power flow to the grid at all operating conditions. This paper presents mathematical modeling and control strategy for the grid connected PMG-based small wind turbine systems. Furling control and expected dynamics are adopted with the wind turbine for aerodynamic power control, while the optimum speed of the PMG is followed to ensure maximum power production. A novel controller is derived from the optimum speed information that promise maximum power flow to the grid by controlling the boost converter output voltage and current through the duty cycle. It is found that the proposed modeling and control strategy is feasible and results are verified through simulation. View full abstract»

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    A utility interactive wind energy conversion scheme with an asynchronous DC link using a supplementary control loop

    Hilloowala, R.M. ; Sharaf, A.M.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 9 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/60.326477
    Publication Year: 1994 , Page(s): 558 - 563
    Cited by:  Papers (45)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The paper presents modelling, simulation and experimental verification of a utility interactive wind energy conversion scheme with an asynchronous link comprised of a diode bridge rectifier and a line commutated inverter. The control objective is to track and extract maximum power from the wind energy system and transfer this power to the electric utility. This is achieved by controlling the firing delay angle of the inverter. Since the diode bridge rectifier has no control on the DC link voltage, a supplementary control loop is used to limit the voltage within a preset voltage threshold. The proposed scheme for regulating the flow of power through the DC link ensures reduced reactive power burden on the self-excitation capacitor banks and better utilisation of available wind energy, while limiting the DC link voltage within a preset voltage threshold. The simulated results are experimentally verified and found to give good power tracking performance View full abstract»

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    Analysis of Voltage Stability and Optimal Wind Power Penetration Limits for a Non-radial Network with an Energy Storage System

    Le, H.T. ; Santoso, S.
    Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2007.385735
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Increasing wind power penetration into power grids is desirable because of its environmental and other benefits. Unfortunately, wind farms could cause serious voltage stability problems due to their output variability and intermittency. It is important to minimize impacts on voltage stability. We propose to use energy storage systems (ESS) to control the intermittency of wind power. The proposed solution, developed and evaluated in connection with the grid voltage stability, comprises three steps: (i) Quantification of wind farm impacts on grid voltage stability, (ii) Determination of acceptable wind power penetration levels, and (iii) Using ESS to facilitate wind power integration. The ultimate goal is to increase wind power penetration while maintaining and/or improving grid voltage stability. View full abstract»

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    Design and dynamic power management of energy storage system for wind plant

    Duong Tran ; Haihua Zhou ; Khambadkone, A.M.
    Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2011 IEEE Ninth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/PEDS.2011.6147271
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 351 - 355

    IEEE Conference Publications

    To integrate wind energy into power grid, energy storage system (ESS) is needed to smooth out fluctuations of wind power output. As power and energy requirements for energy storage in wind application are high, ESS cost is high. In this paper, selection of storage technologies and sizing of storage units in ESS to achieve high power, high energy capacity and low cost are presented. A Dynamic Power Manager is introduced for management of power dynamics and constraints of energy storages inside ESS, while improving controllability of wind plant at PCC. Simulation result shows that the Dynamic Power Manager is effective to manage the ESS and improve power at PCC with RMS ripple down from 17.97 % to 6.42 %. View full abstract»

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    Determination of Short-Term Power Dispatch Schedule for a Wind Farm Incorporated With Dual-Battery Energy Storage Scheme

    Yao, D.L. ; Choi, S.S. ; Tseng, K.J. ; Lie, T.T.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 3 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2011.2163092
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 74 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (24)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A battery energy storage scheme to enable short-term dispatch commitment from a grid-connected wind-turbine generating power station is considered. Among the various types of energy storage medium, technical factors leading to the selection of battery are explained. The scheme utilizes two battery energy storage systems (BESS) in which the generated wind power charges one BESS while concurrently, the second BESS is to discharge power into the grid. The role of the two BESS interchanges when the BESS reaches specified state of charge/discharge. Furthermore, based on forecasted charging wind power and the monitored states of charge of the two BESS, the discharge power level from the generating station is determined and scheduled a few hours ahead. The dispatch scheme maximizes wind energy harnessed, achieved with the minimum number of the BESS switch-overs. The design thus prolongs the service life of the BESS. Numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the scheme are also included. View full abstract»

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    Power management of double-fed induction generator-based wind power system with integrated smart energy storage having superconducting magnetic energy storage/fuel-cell/electrolyser

    Gyawali, N. ; Ohsawa, Y. ; Yamamoto, O.
    Renewable Power Generation, IET

    Volume: 5 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2010.0058
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 407 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Energy storage devices are necessary to address the issues associated with stochastic variation of generated power in a wind energy conversion system. This study explores the control and operational aspects of integrating a smart energy storage system (SESS) into a double-fed induction generator-based wind power system. The fuel-cell/electrolyser subsystem of SESS is employed to provide long-term energy balance by utilising H2 as storage medium, whereas the superconducting magnetic energy storage is employed as buffer storage for transient compensation. The control schemes enable the integrated system to operate seamlessly in different modes fulfilling the operational requirements. Here, system configuration is proposed, control scheme is designed and the detailed dynamic modelling is developed for each component of the system. Simulation is carried out to study the control behaviour of wind turbines during the sudden load change and wind speed variations. The results demonstrate the applicability of the overall operational and control architecture for hybrid wind/storage operation. The control scheme of SESS and power management technique employed into the grid-side converter system, in particular, highlight the capability of the proposed system in managing intermittency and making it a dispatchable entity. View full abstract»

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    The central role of wind power in a hydrogen-based energy system

    Pérez-Navarro, A. ; Alfonso, D. ; Ibáñez, F. ; Peñalvo, E. ; Sánchez, C. ; Segura, I.
    Sustainable Alternative Energy (SAE), 2009 IEEE PES/IAS Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SAE.2009.5534833
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Hydrogen as fuel could be a solution for the transportation sector with a twofold benefit: alleviate the external dependence in fossil resources and improve the environmental impact of this sector. A significant penetration of hydrogen in the transportation sector implies a substantial increase in the generation of electricity to facilitate the production by electrolysis of the required big amounts of hydrogen. This extra of electricity should be covered in a clean way, so excluding any increase in the use of fossil fuels and demanding a big contribution from renewable sources. If this contribution is based on wind energy, a more efficient use of the total power of the existing wind parks will be possible. Simulations have been completed to determine the level of penetration of hydrogen and the corresponding nominal wind power required to facilitate a sustainable transportation in the Valencia Community, deducing the technical and economical viability for this strategy. View full abstract»

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    Modeling and analysis of a grid-connected wind energy conversion system using PSCAD/EMTDC

    Eung-Sang Kim ; Byeong-Mun Song ; Lee, K.Y.
    Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2010

    DOI: 10.1109/ISGT.2010.5434756
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents the modeling and analysis of a grid-connected wind energy conversion system (WECS) using PSCAD/EMTDC. The modeled system is characterized and analyzed for validation. An inverter control algorithm for effective power control is also proposed and evaluated, resulting in an efficient active power control that extracts the maximum power from the wind turbine. The controller also controls reactive power for load variation and aerodynamic models are applied for a wind turbine model. All analysis and evaluation have been conducted for a 1 MW power system with 22.9 kV. View full abstract»

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    Performance improvement and loss minimization of variable to constant frequency AC/AC converter for wind energy system

    Singh, N. ; Agrawal, V.
    India Conference (INDICON), 2013 Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/INDCON.2013.6725857
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A new single stage AC to AC converter has been designed in a grid-connected wind energy conversion system which changes the variable-frequency AC output of electrical generator into a constant-frequency supply which can be fed into an electrical grid. The single stage converter eliminates multistage operation, the DC-link filter elements and thus resolves the size, weight and reliability issues. The complete system has been simulated using MATLAB/SPS for different wind conditions and results have demonstrated. The generator current is regulated to follow the optimized reference current corresponding to variation of wind speed in order to reduce the losses and increase the power capability of the system. View full abstract»

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    Optimal Power Control Strategy of Maximizing Wind Energy Tracking and Conversion for VSCF Doubly Fed Induction Generator System

    Li, H. ; Chen, Z. ; Pedersen, J.K.
    Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2006. IPEMC 2006. CES/IEEE 5th International

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/IPEMC.2006.4778305
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (10)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper focuses on the development of maximum wind power extraction strategies for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) grid-connected wind power generation systems with a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). A new optimal control method is proposed by controlling the generator stator active and reactive power, which is based on the condition of the system operation for not only the extracted maximum power of the wind turbine below the rated wind speed but also the higher generator efficiency. Based on the DFIG mathematical models, the optimal stator reactive power value is derived for minimal machine copper losses. According to wind turbine power characteristics and generator power flow equations, the optimal stator active power reference value is also obtained for capturing maximal output power from wind turbines. A dual-passage excitation control strategy is applied to control the active and reactive power independently. Detailed simulation results have confirmed the feasibility and performance of the optimal control strategy View full abstract»

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    Increasing wind energy targets with the integration of electric vehicles: An application to the Portuguese case

    Carvalho, E. ; Sousa, J. ; Ventim Neves, M.
    European Energy Market (EEM), 2013 10th International Conference on the

    DOI: 10.1109/EEM.2013.6607369
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the recent past, due to political and environment concerns, a great evolution has been verified in terms of renewable energy production and a significant growth is expected in the near future, especially in the wind power. However, the variability of the renewable sources, such as wind power, introduce some new challenges to the power system operators, namely the balance between power generation and demand. The integration of Plug-in electric vehicles in the transportation sector has great potential to reduce oil dependence and GHG emissions, as well as contribute to integrate the wind power into the grid. This paper intends to study for the 2020 Portuguese power grid, the relationship between the EV penetration levels and the allowable installed wind power, for a specific curtailment threshold. To achieve that, a methodology based on a hydrothermal coordination, unit commitment and economic dispatch is applied to the Portuguese power system, for the entire year of operation. Simulations are performed in an hourly basis for different EV penetration levels under a specific night charge scenario. Results show that the admissible installed wind capacity vary between 6.1 GW and 11.4 GW for an EV penetration ranging from 0 % to 100 % of the light vehicle fleet, following an almost linear relationship. View full abstract»

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    A robust optimization approach for the interdependency analysis of integrated energy systems considering wind power uncertainty

    Fuerte-Esquivel, C. ; Martinez-Mares, A.
    PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, 2014 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6938792
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. As power generation plants which use wind energy are increasingly integrated into existing electric power systems, it becomes important to evaluate how the wind power uncertainties affect the power system's operation as well as its interdependency with those infrastructures utilized to transport the various forms of primary energy that is converted into electric energy. This paper proposes a robust optimization model for analyzing the interdependency between natural gas, coal and electricity infrastructures considering their operation constraints and wind power uncertainties. The optimization model obtains an uncertainty immunized solution in a unified framework based on the balance of nodal energy flows, which remains feasible and nearly optimal for all values of uncertain data. Case studies are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution for a multi-energy system composed by the IEEE-118 test system coupled to a 15-nodes natural gas network and a 4-nodes coal distribution system as well as for the real life Belgian natural gas and electricity infrastructures. View full abstract»

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    Comparison of control strategies for a novel dual-stator brushless doubly-fed induction generator in wind energy applications

    Xinchi Wei ; Ming Cheng ; Peng Han ; Wei Wang ; Rensong Luo
    Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2015 18th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICEMS.2015.7385191
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1039 - 1045

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The dual-stator brushless doubly-fed induction generator-based wind energy conversion system (DSBDFIG-WECS) is promising in future wind energy development due to the merits of compact structure, low cost and high reliability. This paper makes the first attempt to compare the performance of vector control (VC) and direct torque control (DTC) based on the DSBDFIG-WECS. The comprehensive comparison results and the corresponding conclusions will be of value for future work on the DSBDFIG as well as the common brushless doubly-fed induction generator (BDFIG). View full abstract»

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    Optimal strategies for selling wind power in mid-term energy auctions

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J. ; Roma, T. ; Rivier, J. ; Ostos, P.
    Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES '09. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2009.5276009
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Due to the environmental pollution and the emission of CO2 of conventional fossil-fueled power plants, renewable energy sources are becoming an important part of the generation mix in many electricity markets. For example, in the Spanish market, during the day March 27th 2008, wind power covered the 24% of the daily demand. This is a consequence of the active role that wind producers have taken in the Spanish system by participating both in the day-ahead spot market and in the base-load energy auctions organized to cover a percentage of the demand of the distribution companies. This panel-session paper presents the basic ideas of a more detailed paper under development, and its main objective is to find the optimal strategy of a wind producer to sells its energy in mid-term demand procurement auctions subject to price and production uncertainty. View full abstract»

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    Keynote speech 2: Wind energy conversion systems (WECS)

    Salameh, Z.
    Applications of Information Technology to Renewable Energy Processes and Systems (IT-DREPS), 2013 1st International Conference & Exhibition on the

    DOI: 10.1109/IT-DREPS.2013.6588134
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): xiv

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Constantly growing demand for energy cannot continue indefinitely relies only upon fossil fuel. The earth's finite supply will eventually exhaust. Energy is a major key to industrial development and the world's well-being. The awareness of depletion of fossil fuel resources has challenged scientists and engineers to search for alternative energy sources that can meet energy demand for the near future. Recently the global warming, pollution and high oil prices forced politicians, utility companies (UC) and the general public to pay more attention to renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind, photovoltaic and bio fuels. RES are located right where the customers are, so they are used more efficiently, they are not polluting renewable and modular. View full abstract»

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    Solid state controller for an isolated wind energy conversion system feeding dynamic loads

    Singh, B. ; Kasal, G.K.
    Power Engineering Conference, 2007. IPEC 2007. International

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 532 - 537

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper deals with a solid state voltage and frequency controller for an isolated wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on capacitor excited asynchronous generator (CEAG) and feeding an induction motor load. The proposed voltage and frequency controller consists of an IGBT (insulated gate bipolar junction transistor) based voltage source converter along-with battery energy storage system (BESS) at its DC link. By controlling the reactive and active power simultaneously, the proposed controller contcls the magnitude and frequency of the generated voltage. The proposed electro-mechanical system along with its controller is modeled and simulated in MATLAB using Simulink and PSB (power system block-set) toolboxes. The performance of the controller is studied under direct on line starting of a 3-phase induction motor and an application of the load torque, as well as uider the condition of varying wind speeds and it is observed that the proposed controller responds in desired manner as a voltage and frequency regulator, a load balancer and the load leveler. View full abstract»

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    Design of current mode controlled SEPIC DC-DC converter for MPPT control of wind energy conversion systems

    Hussain, J. ; Mishra, M.K.
    Computation of Power, Energy Information and Commuincation (ICCPEIC), 2015 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCPEIC.2015.7259460
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 0177 - 0182

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Maximum power extraction from wide range of wind velocity profiles is possible with single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) employed wind energy conversion systems. Effective feedback control is necessary for fast tracking of maximum power point under turbulent wind conditions. This paper presents small-signal modeling of SEPIC converter using state-space averaging (SSA) technique. Required dynamic small-signal linear model's transfer functions for the feedback controllers' design are derived. Response of the system against fast changing reference inputs is verified through simulation results. View full abstract»

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    Implementation and control of grid connected AC-DC-AC power converter for variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Seung-Ho Song ; Shin-il Kang ; Nyeon-kun Hahm
    Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003. APEC '03. Eighteenth Annual IEEE

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/APEC.2003.1179207
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 154 - 158 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (59)  |  Patents (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    30 kW electrical power conversion system is developed for a variable speed wind turbine system. In the wind energy conversion system (WECS) a synchronous generator converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the voltage and frequency of generator output vary along the wind speed change, a DC-DC boosting chopper is utilized to maintain constant DC link voltage. The input DC current is regulated to follow the optimized current reference for maximum power point operation of turbine system. Line side PWM inverter supply currents into the utility line by regulating the DC link voltage. The active power is controlled by q-axis current whereas the reactive power can be controlled by d-axis current. The phase angle of utility voltage is detected using software PLL (phased locked loop) in d-q synchronous reference frame. Proposed scheme gives a low cost and high quality power conversion solution for variable speed WECS. View full abstract»

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    Modelling and control strategy of PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Errami, Y. ; Maaroufi, M. ; Ouassaid, M.
    Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 2011 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICMCS.2011.5945736
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the advance of power electronic technology, novel control strategies and new circuit topologies direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) have increasingly drawn interests to wind turbine manufactures. In the proposed wind energy system, a PMSG is used as a variable speed generator. The generator model is established in the synchronous-rotating dq reference frame. The torque of PMSG is suitably controlled according to a generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control without a wind speed detector. The speed control is realized through field orientation where the q-axis current is used to control the rotational speed of the generator according to the variation of wind speed and the d-axis current is set to zero. Active and reactive power can be controlled by direct and quadrature current components, respectively. View full abstract»

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    Three-phase power factor correction rectifier applied to wind energy conversion systems

    Silva, C.E.A. ; Bascope, R.T. ; Oliveira, D.S.
    Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2008. APEC 2008. Twenty-Third Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/APEC.2008.4522808
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 768 - 773
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes a topology of three-phase controlled rectifier feasible for small wind energy conversion systems. This rectifier uses six wires of the generator and allows for the operation with high power factor, increasing the generator efficiency. One Cycle Control (OCC) was used in the rectifier control. This study is concerned with the operating principle, a design example, and some simulation and experimental results for a 5 kW prototype. View full abstract»

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    A Novel Voltage Stabilization Control Scheme for Stand-alone Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Sharaf, A.M. ; Aljankawey, A. ; Altas, I.H.
    Clean Electrical Power, 2007. ICCEP '07. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCEP.2007.384263
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 514 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (9)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes a novel low cost FACTS based voltage stabilization scheme for a stand-alone wind energy conversion systems using self excited squirrel-cage induction generator (SEIG) driven by a wind turbine and interfaced to electric load. The new control scheme is designed not only to ensure bus voltage stabilization, but also to improve energy utilization using a low-cost PWM-switched modulated power filter compensator (MPFC) driven by a tri-loop dynamic error driven error scaled regulator. Numerous validation cases were simulated under different load types and excursions including linearized, motorized and nonlinear type loads. The proposed FACTS scheme is simulated and satisfactory results are obtained showing the applicability of the scheme for supplying electricity to remote areas such as isolated villages, heating, water pumping, ventilation and air conditioning. View full abstract»

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    Analysis of DC Connection for Capacitor Energy Storage in Wind Power Generation System

    Yeshwenth, V.J. ; Udhayaprakash, R. ; Krishna, N.
    Computer and Electrical Engineering, 2008. ICCEE 2008. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCEE.2008.143
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 125 - 129

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This work presents the analysis and performance of connecting two wind power generation systems with the energy storage at the dc side. Energy storage is desirable to be installed to keep constant output from the wind power generation system. The DC connection of two wind power generation system helps to exchange power between the two systems and can suppress the disturbance of the output power to the utility systems longer than the stand alone system. The performance of connecting two wind generation systems with the energy storage at the dc side has been investigated by using the simulation. The wind power generation system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink and the effectiveness of the dc connection of two systems is presented. This effect is easily achieved and implemented without any additional control. The controller measures only the common dc side capacitor voltage of the local system. MATLAB/Simulink simulation verifies the better performance in a certain situation. View full abstract»

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    Wind power insertion through energy auctions in Brazil

    Porrua, F. ; Bezerra, B. ; Barroso, L.A. ; Lino, P. ; Ralston, F. ; Pereira, M.
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2010 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2010.5589751
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Brazil has a large potential for wind: it is estimated that nearly 140,000 MW of wind energy generating capacity could be built in the country. In December 2009 a specific auction to contract wind power was carried out. The motivation of this auction was to take advantage of the 2008-2009 world financial crisis that has lowered equipment cost as well as to foster competition among the interested investors, thus starting the development of this technology in the country in a larger scale. The product offered - a 20 year energy contract - has particular characteristics that try to accommodate wind variability and mechanisms to penalize productions above/below a given annual energy threshold. The objective of this work is to discuss the wind power auction in Brazil. We describe the auction motivation, product, organization, procedure, results and present our critical analysis. The information presented in this work may be useful for other countries willing to adopt the same mechanism. View full abstract»

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    Load commutation for stand alone wind and PV hydrogen energy system

    Agbossou, K. ; Hamelin, Jean ; Laperriere, A. ; Laurencelle, F. ; Bose, T.K.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2000 Canadian Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2000.849771
    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 555 - 558 vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The authors present a renewable energy (RE) system based on production and storage of hydrogen. The principal source of energy is a wind turbine (WT) generating a maximum power of 10 kW. The energy from the WT will be directed to the load while the remaining excess power, when available, will be used to produce and store hydrogen. They also have as secondary power source a photovoltaic (PV) away generating a maximum power of 1 kW. The hydrogen will then be restored to the stand alone site to produce electrical energy, via proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) as a load-levelling electrical system, when not enough energy is produced from the RE sources View full abstract»

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    Multiphase Wind Energy generation with direct matrix converter

    Abdel-Rahim, O. ; Funato, H. ; Abu-Rub, H. ; Ellabban, O.
    Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2014 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICIT.2014.6894994
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 519 - 523
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes a multiphase power generation with matrix converter for Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The proposed system consists of five-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG), to generate five-phase voltage with variable amplitude and frequency. The grid is a three-phase system and hence deployment of multiphase generator needs some sort of phase conversion system. Therefore, a five-to-three phase Direct Matrix Converter (DMC) is used to interface the five-phase PMSG with the grid. The choice of multiphase machine comes from the inherent advantages of multiphase machine such as higher output power, reduced phase's losses, reduced sized for the same amount of output power compared to three phase generator. The proposed control strategy for the converter is Model Predictive Control (MPC). The proposed algorithm does the following functions: extract maximum power from the WECS, and ensures unity power factor at the grid terminal and machine terminal. View full abstract»

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    Optimal planning of wind energy conversion systems over an energy scenario

    Roy, S.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 12 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/60.629710
    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 248 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (10)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper introduces an optimisation model that may be used for planning wind turbine installations over a global energy scenario. The model follows from the observation that, in most practical cases, installations may have to be made under space constraints, and that this may limit the overall energy output per unit land area. In such cases, it may be wise to install wind turbines of large ratings, in an attempt to extract large amounts of energy from each installed turbine. This would evidently lead to better utilisation of the installed units View full abstract»

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    Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH)-based control approach for wind energy conversion systems

    Pahlevani, M. ; Shangzhi Pan ; Mash, J. ; Jain, P.
    Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2014 IEEE 5th International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/PEDG.2014.6878698
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a novel control approach to improve the dynamic response of wind energy control systems (WECS) that use a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) operating under a wide input and load range. In this paper, it's shown that WECS is classified as a Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) system. Therefore, a nonlinear controller based on PCH is proposed, which is able to robustly control the WECS under parameter uncertainties and disturbances. The performance of the PCH-based controller is evaluated through simulation. Also, the proposed controller is implemented on an experimental prototype. Simulation and experimental results show a robust and fast transient performance compared to the conventional dq-controller. View full abstract»

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    Combined control of a distribution static synchronous compensator/flywheel energy storage system for wind energy applications

    Suvire, G.O. ; Mercado, P.E.
    Generation, Transmission & Distribution, IET

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 6
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2011.0148
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 483 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The integration of wind power generation in power systems is steadily increasing around the world. This incorporation can bring problems onto the dynamics of power systems owing to the lack of controllability over the wind and the type of generation used. In this work, a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) coupled with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is used to mitigate problems introduced by wind generation in the electrical systems. A dynamic model of the DSTATCOM/FESS device is briefly presented and a technique to control the active power exchanged between the device and the power system is proposed. The control technique has two control modes. One control mode mitigates the power fluctuations of wind generators, and it is based on fuzzy logic and a special filter. The other control mode contributes to recover the frequency when significant faults arise in the system. Simulation tests on the behaviour of the device are analysed when it works in combination with wind generation in the electrical system. Results show a satisfactory performance of the proposed control techniques along with a high effectiveness to smooth the active power fluctuations of wind generation and to contribute to the recovery of the frequency. View full abstract»

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    Optimal control of a grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system based on squirrel cage induction generator

    Kedjar, B. ; Al-Haddad, K.
    IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2012.6389327
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 3560 - 3565
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents the design of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with Integral action (LQRI) applied to a grid connected wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) with full-capacity power converter (WECS-SCIG). The controller is used to achieve speed regulation for maximum power extraction from the wind turbine, DC bus voltage regulation and to keep the power factor at unity for the grid-side converter. The model of this latter is set in the d-q rotating reference frame synchronized with phase a of grid voltages while rotor flux oriented vector control is used for the machine-side converter. Knowing that the standard LQR provide essentially proportional gains, the system dynamic is augmented with the integral of the q component of the grid currents, the rotor flux, the DC bus voltage and the generator speed in order to cancel steady-state errors. The WECS-SCIG is controlled as a whole i.e. a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system and a fixed PWM at 2.7 kHz is used to generate the gating signals of the two back to back converters. The system is tested for both steady-state and in transient for a sudden variation in wind speed. The simulation results obtained with SimPowerSystems (SPS) and Simulink of Matlab implementation of the controller proved the effectiveness of the control strategy. View full abstract»

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    Topologies for stand-alone DFIG based wind energy conversion system

    Shukla, R.D. ; Tripathi, R.K.
    Power, Control and Embedded Systems (ICPCES), 2012 2nd International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPCES.2012.6508127
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A lot of work has been reported on the grid connected operation of DFIG systems. The grid connected generator technology is relatively older and is widely in use today. However, very little attention has been paid toward the issues of stand-alone DFIG systems. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy generation system can be used as a stand-alone/autonomous power system after the failure of mains in a distributed generation network. This paper gives the modeling of stand-alone generators. This paper provides the brief idea about the basic power electronics converter Topologies and modeling of stand-alone Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS), which is very helpful for present researcher and students working in this area. Also gives the control techniques of stator voltage and frequency. View full abstract»

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    Short-term energy balancing with increasing levels of wind energy

    Kiviluoma, J. ; Meibom, P. ; Tuohy, A. ; Troy, N. ; Milligan, M. ; Lange, B. ; Gibescu, M. ; O'Malley, M.
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 2013 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESMG.2013.6672232
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given. Increasing levels of wind energy are adding to the uncertainty and variability inherent in electricity grids and are consequently driving changes. Here, some of the possible evolutions in optimal short-term energy balancing to better deal with wind energy uncertainty are investigated. The focus is mainly on managing reserves through changes in scheduling, in particular market structure (more regular and higher resolution scheduling), reserve procurement (dynamic as opposed to static), and improved operational planning (stochastic as opposed to deterministic). Infrastructure changes including flexible plant, increased demand side participation, more interconnection, transmission, larger balancing areas, and critically improved forecasting can also be significant and are dealt with in the discussion. The evolutions are tightly coupled, their impact is system-dependent and so no “best” set is identifiable but experience of system operators will be critical to future developments. View full abstract»

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    Wind turbine as an energy fuel saver - A case study for remote area in Oman

    Malik, A. ; Al-Badi, A.H.
    EUROCON 2009, EUROCON '09. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/EURCON.2009.5167692
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 590 - 595

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A number of years worth of data concerning the wind speed in Oman have been presented in this article. The data are obtained from a remote agricultural research station in Oman. The annual mean wind speed is 5.7 m/s. In this station, electricity supply is provided with diesel-engine generating units. The annual peak load and minimum load recorded at the site is 130 kW and 28 kW, respectively. A 50-kW wind turbine is selected to demonstrate the economic feasibility of the turbine as a fuel saver. The results show that wind energy utilization is an attractive option with total specific cost of the selected wind turbine at 7.8 ccedil/kWh at 7.55% discount rate comparing to diesel generation operating cost of 14.3 ccedil/kWh, considering the capital cost of diesel units as sunk. The simple payback period of the turbine is 5.4 years and discounted payback 7.2 years. View full abstract»

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    Optimum control strategies in energy conversion of PMSG wind turbine system without mechanical sensors

    Tan, K. ; Islam, S.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 19 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2004.827038
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 392 - 399
    Cited by:  Papers (260)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The amount of energy obtained from a wind energy conversion system (WECS) depends not only on the characteristics of the wind regime at the site, but it also depends on the control strategy used for the WECS. In order to determine the gain in energy derived from one concept as compared against another, models of several autonomous WECS have been developed using Matlab Simulink software. These allow easy performance evaluations and comparisons on different control strategies used, and determine the amount of energy injected to the grid in the case of the grid-connected systems. This paper also proposes a prototype version of the control strategy of a 20-kW permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) for maximum power tracking and compares with the results produced by previous strategies. Advantages of this mechanical sensorless control strategy for maximum power estimation are demonstrated by digital simulation of the system. View full abstract»

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    Permanent magnet synchronous generator based stand-alone wind energy supply system

    Mishra, S.
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 2013 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESMG.2013.6673039
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Summary form only given: In this paper a novel algorithm, based on dc link voltage, is proposed for effective energy management of a standalone permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed wind energy conversion system consisting of battery, fuel cell and dump load (i.e., electrolyzer). Moreover, by maintaining the dc link voltage at its reference value, the output ac voltage of the inverter can be kept constant irrespective of variations in the wind speed and load. An effective control technique for the inverter, based on PWM scheme, has been developed to make the line voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) balanced when the load is unbalanced. Similarly, a proper control of battery current through dc-dc converter has been carried out to reduce the electrical torque pulsation of the PMSG under unbalanced load scenario. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory and it can also maintain maximum power point tracking. View full abstract»

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    Software tool to predict the Wind Energy production losses due to icing

    Dimitrova, M. ; Ibrahim, H. ; Fortin, G. ; Ilinca, A. ; Perron, J.
    Electrical Power and Energy Conference (EPEC), 2011 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/EPEC.2011.6070245
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 462 - 467
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The icing causes energy losses for wind turbines. Impact of ice is difficult to quantify without experimental tests and numerical simulations due to the lack of real data from the field. The high cost of wind tunnel testing, conducted to the necessity to develop a numerical approach that can accurately evaluate the energy losses for different configurations of wind turbine and weather conditions at lower cost and over a shorter period. PROICET is a numerical model to calculate the annual energy production of a wind turbine considering the icing events. This model can elsewhere quantify the energy losses induced by the ice. View full abstract»

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    Capacity Expansion and Restructuring with Intermittent Wind and Small Hydro Energy

    Cai, L. ; Cheng, G.H. ; Xu, Z.
    Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition: Asia and Pacific, 2005 IEEE/PES

    DOI: 10.1109/TDC.2005.1546978
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A capacity expansion in regional power system with energy restructuring consideration has been presented in this paper. Wind and small hydro distributed generations are discussed as intermittent energy. Reserve capacity is prepared for the daily intermittence, while the monthly fluctuation output during a year has also been considered to formulate a low-cost overall generation through quitting the existing old/small thermal units for expansion or elimination. Under the surroundings, the extra-expanded capacity can be determined and the energy structure can be adjusted to promote the renewable wind and small hydro energy instead of the low efficient generation. A case study on 9-bus HV system has been used to perform a reasonable implementation View full abstract»

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    Optimal control of wind energy conversion systems: From energy optimization to multi-purpose criteria - A short survey

    Bratcu, A.I. ; Munteanu, I. ; Ceanga, E.
    Control and Automation, 2008 16th Mediterranean Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/MED.2008.4602183
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 759 - 766
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper attempts an as exhaustive as possible review of the control methods dedicated to optimizing the dynamic behavior of variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECS) from various viewpoints. Different performance criteria can be defined for WECS - e.g., the energy optimization can be achieved by operating the system at variable speed. The exploitation experience and grid-integration of WECS has presently concluded the necessity of solving multi-purpose optimization problems, which require advanced control approaches being employed. Some of the most pertinent approaches belonging to this trend and implemented by variable-speed operation are overviewed and assessed here, that allows for suggesting future research issues and perspectives. View full abstract»

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    A Novel Sensorless Unity Power Factor Control Method for Six-phase PMSG in Direct Drive Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Weihao Hu ; Yue Wang ; Xianwen Song ; Zhaoan Wang
    Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2009. APEC 2009. Twenty-Fourth Annual IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/APEC.2009.4802744
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 744 - 749

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In the high power direct drive wind energy conversion systems, the power factors of both the generator-side converter and the grid-side converter are controlled to one in order to make full use of the capability of the power converters. In this paper, a novel sensorless unity power factor control method based on the reference coordinate system rotating synchronously with the voltage of the generator-side converter is proposed to estimate the rotor speed of the six-phase PMSG. This method is very simple and only needs the measurement of the voltage phase of the generator-side converter. The power factor of the generator-side converter can be controlled to one easily and it can increase the capability of the converter. Simulation and experimental results verify the analysis and the conclusion. View full abstract»

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    Market forecasts, feasibility studies and regulatory framework for offshore wind energy integration

    Madariaga, A. ; de Alegria, I.M. ; Martin, J.L. ; Eguia, P. ; Ceballos, S.
    IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2011.6119817
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3170 - 3175

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper gives an overview of several aspects of Offshore Wind Power (OWP) integration. During last year the wind market has exceed forecasts despite of the global crisis, with the offshore market offering very good numbers. Moreover, some projections presented in the paper show that OWP installed during the next five years will probably overcome European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)'s forecasts. Logically, investors of OWP projects demand accurate viability plans, which in turn ask for rigorous cost analysis and revenue forecasts considering the whole life cycle of the installation. However, the electricity price in an open market is expected to show certain volatility in the presence of large amount of Renewable Energy Supplies for Electricity (RESE), which makes governmental supporting schemes essential. The European Commission (EC) has established a new regulatory framework called to play a key role in promoting and sustaining RESE and Member States have specified those support schemes in their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). View full abstract»

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    Decoupled indirect current control of DFIG for wind energy applications

    Verma, V. ; Pant, P. ; Suresh, B. ; Singh, B.
    Power Electronics (IICPE), 2010 India International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IICPE.2011.5728149
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) has emerged as a suitable alternative for conversion of wind energy to grid quality energy under varying wind conditions. Often the control mechanism use large number of sensors and employ complex computations. Moreover, the reported control schemes for DFIG employing grid side converter (GSC) do not ensure a drawl of unity power factor (upf) sinusoidal current from a.c. source for maintaining the dc bus, and PWM voltage control and often employed for the rotor side converter (RSC) to inject/draw current in/from the rotor as per wind speed to keep the frequency and voltage constant at stator terminals. The paper deals with the control of DFIG for wind energy applications using indirect current control to control RSC for regulating power flow in the rotor circuit of DFIG and to ensure upf operation of GSC. A grid connected DFIG has been considered for present study. The GSC injects the required power into the DC bus to maintain the voltage constant. The simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed technique is more effective, faster, energy efficient and utilizes lesser number of components. View full abstract»

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    High Performance Rectifier with Wide Speed Range for Direct-Drive Wind Energy System

    Hongyang Zhang ; Changbao Fan ; Renyuan Tang ; Jianguang Zhu
    Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2010 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/iCECE.2010.928
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3803 - 3806
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A high performance rectifier with a novel structural and wide speed range for direct-drive wind energy system has been investigated and design. The utilization rate and efficiency of low wind are critical focus for wind energy system, in the form of ultimate output dc voltage as the optimum object, a traditional full-bridge PWM rectifier and a boost circuit for the direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) compose the novel rectifier in order to achieve the satisfying demands of high performance and low-wind speed. The design can feasible realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) with a modified strategy and unit power factor (UPF) control, and improve the ability greatly of full-speed operation especially. The analysis and investigation results all have been confirmed that the excellent dynamic states and steady states performances of the rectifier. View full abstract»

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    Copper loss minimization in combination with MPPT control in a wind energy conversion system with induction generator

    Mesemanolis, A. ; Mademlis, C. ; Kioskeridis, I.
    Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP), 2013 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCEP.2013.6587023
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 414 - 420

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a control scheme for wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with induction generator is presented that is composed of a copper loss minimization (CLM) controller and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The CLM is accomplished by controlling the excitation current of the induction generator and the MPPT control is attained by controlling the rotational speed of the wind turbine. The suggested control scheme can be easily implemented because, neither the measurement of the wind speed nor the knowledge of the wind turbine characteristics are required. Moreover, it exhibits fast dynamic response and thus, it can follow the fast dynamics of the wind. The generator is connected to the power grid by means of two vector controlled back-to-back converters. Experimental results are presented to validate the cooperation of the CLM controller with the MPPT controller. View full abstract»

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    Power Optimization in a Grid-Connected Wind Energy Conversion System

    Rajambal, K. ; Chellamuthu, C.
    Power Electronics and Drives Systems, 2005. PEDS 2005. International Conference on

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/PEDS.2005.1619947
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1617 - 1621
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper discusses the performance of a grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system consisting of a wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) through a gearbox. The generator output voltage which varies with wind velocity and grid voltage is rectified and fed to a DC/DC chopper. The duty ratio of the chopper is adjusted to extract maximum power from the wind turbine. The maximized power is fed to the local grid at the required voltage and frequency using a PWM inverter. The mathematical model of the wind energy conversion system is developed using MATLAB. Simulation is carried out to identify the optimum duty ratio and modulation index for varying wind velocities and grid voltages. The simulation data are used to design a neuro controller for power optimization. View full abstract»

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    Decision Support System of Site Selection of Utilization of the Offshore Wind Energy Based on GIS

    Xin Hualong ; Yong Liu ; Xin Junfeng
    Management and Service Science, 2009. MASS '09. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICMSS.2009.5303954
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Systematic analysis to site selection of utilization of the offshore wind energy is made in this paper and evaluating indicator system of site selection of making use of marine wind energy is established, we comprehensively study the way site selection with grey theory integrated method, which causes the measure results to be more scientific and reasonably that using gray statistics method to establish evaluation matrix, determining the weight of related indexes with the gray connection analysis and carrying on the comprehensive judgement for decision support with the fuzzy method. We also developed decision support information system with VB and GIS on base of this model to carry on the especial analysis and the demonstration to the region related information. View full abstract»

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    Double side control of wound rotor induction machine for wind energy application employing half controlled converters

    Debiprasad Panda ; Lipo, T.A.
    Industry Applications Conference, 2005. Fourtieth IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2005

    Volume: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/IAS.2005.1518807
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2468 - 2475 Vol. 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A double side converter fed wound rotor induction machine control for a wind energy application is proposed in this paper. In order to reduce the cost of a wind generator system, a new configuration using half controlled converters for both the stator and rotor circuit as well as for the line side is proposed. The proposed controller reduces the required KVA rating of both machine side and line side converters, improves the efficiency of the wind generator, helps operating over a wide speed range and supports near unity power factor interface with the grid. It is shown that the combined KVA rating of both the machine side converters are even less than that of the machine side converter for a conventional rotor side control configuration. Also, both stator and rotor side being connected to the grid through two power stages, the system will be least affected by the fault or disturbances in the gird. The proposed configuration is simulated for a 30 kW wound rotor machine in SABER and the simulation results are presented. View full abstract»

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    Voltage and frequency control with reduced switch integrated voltage source converter for IAG in wind energy conversion system

    Singh, B. ; Sharma, S. ; Chandra, A. ; Al Haddad, K.
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2010 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2010.5589931
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper deals with a voltage and frequency controller (VFC) of a stand-alone wind energy conversion system using an isolated asynchronous generator (IAG) feeding three-phase four-wire loads. The reference generator currents are estimated using the power balance theory to control the voltage and frequency of IAG system. Two-leg reduced switch integrated voltage source converter (VSC) with a battery energy storage system (BESS) is used as a VFC for the power management of the wind energy conversion system (WECS). The proposed VFC works as a voltage regulator, a load leveler, a load balancer and a harmonic eliminator in WECS. The wind power driven IAG system is modeled and simulated in the MATLAB using Simulink and sim power system (SPS) toolboxes. View full abstract»

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    High-power multilevel step-up DC/DC converter for offshore wind energy systems

    Parastar, A. ; Jul-Ki Seok
    Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2015 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7310335
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 4781 - 4788

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a multilevel step-up DC/DC converter for DC grid-based offshore wind energy conversion applications. The main features of the proposed multilevel converter are as follows: 1) the voltage stress of the power devices can be lowered, making it suitable for high-voltage applications; 2) the boost inductor can be significantly reduced which leads to the outstanding dynamic performance; and 3) it can reach a high-voltage gain, which is well suited for high-gain applications. The theoretical analysis is carried out for a four-level step-up converter. Therefore, the converter can be extended to any arbitrary number of levels. The proposed four-level converter is verified by a simulation and evaluated to the conventional multilevel DC/DC converter in terms of component stress and power device count. The developed topology has been implemented on a 2-kW prototype converter to confirm its feasibility. View full abstract»

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    Synchronization techniques comparison for sensorless control applied to Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS)

    Gonzalez, L.G. ; Figueres, E. ; Garcera, G. ; Carranza, O. ; Gonzalez-Espin, F.
    Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper encompasses a comparative study of techniques for position and speed estimation applied to wind energy conversion systems (WECS), connected to a distribution grid by means of a back to back converter. In the context of low and medium power wind energy conversion systems, the robustness of several sensorless techniques are studied taking into account the tolerance of the PMSG parameters. View full abstract»

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    Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Beltran, B. ; Ahmed-Ali, T. ; Benbouzid, M.E.H.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 23 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2007.914163
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 551 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (88)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling power generation in variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VS-WECS). These systems have two operation regions depending on the wind turbine tip-speed ratio. They are distinguished by minimum phase behavior in one of these regions and a nonminimum phase in the other one. A sliding mode control strategy is then proposed to ensure stability in both operation regions and to impose the ideal feedback control solution despite model uncertainties. The proposed sliding mode control strategy presents attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine and the generator as well as to electric grid disturbances. The proposed sliding mode control approach has been simulated on a 1.5-MW three-blade wind turbine to evaluate its consistency and performance. The next step was the validation using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine simulator called the fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence code (FAST). Both simulation and validation results show that the proposed control strategy is effective in terms of power regulation. Moreover, the sliding mode approach is arranged so as to produce no chattering in the generated torque that could lead to increased mechanical stress because of strong torque variations. View full abstract»

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    Energetic Optimization of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems by Extremum Seeking Control

    Bratcu, A.I. ; Munteanu, I. ; Ceanga, E. ; Epure, S.
    EUROCON, 2007. The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool"

    DOI: 10.1109/EURCON.2007.4400523
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 2536 - 2541
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper approaches the control problem aiming at maximizing the energetic conversion for a class of horizontal axis fixed pitch variable speed small power wind energy conversion systems, working in the partial load region. The wind turbine model and its parameters are poorly known. Using the extremum seeking control principles, a new approach of the generically called maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is proposed. It aims at driving the average position of the operating point near to optimality. Instead of inducing sinusoidal search signals, the wind turbulence is here used as search disturbance. The operating point's distance to optimality is estimated using the fast Fourier transform processing of some available measures. The high speed shaft's average rotational speed is then slowly adjusted. Numerical simulations are used to validate the proposed control law. View full abstract»

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    Maximum Power Tracking with voltage stability studies in wind energy conversion system: A review

    Dixit, A. ; Singh, P. ; Mishra, N. ; Singh, D.
    Sustainable Energy and Intelligent Systems (SEISCON 2012), IET Chennai 3rd International on

    DOI: 10.1049/cp.2012.2232
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 9

    IET Conference Publications

    With the advancements in the variable speed direct drive design and control of wind energy systems, the efficiency and energy capture of conversion systems is also increasing. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is a very important necessity, in a system of energy conversion from renewable energy sources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of MPPT techniques with a review of their strengths and drawbacks. This paper also presents a review on the voltage stability impact of wind power integration into the power system. View full abstract»

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    Remote area wind energy harvesting for low-power autonomous sensors

    Weimer, M.A. ; Zane, R.A.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2006. PESC '06. 37th IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESC.2006.1712213
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (25)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A growing demand for deployment of autonomous sensors and sensor networks is leading to a subsequent increase in the demand for localized, independent energy harvesting capabilities for each node. In this paper, a method of remote area wind energy harvesting is presented, with a focus on an anemometer-based solution. By utilizing the motion of the anemometer shaft to turn a compact alternator, small amounts of power can be harvested from otherwise unavailable sources. Energy harvested is converted to battery potential via a pulsed buck-boost converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). It is found that maintaining a constant input resistance at the input port of the converter biases the alternator to operate at its peak power point over a wide range of wind speeds. Results show that power harvesting capability using the discussed alternator and power converter solution are in the range of tens to hundreds of microwatts up to approximately one milliwatt. This power is passed to the central system batteries, providing a trickle-charge. As a result, sensor nodes incorporating this harvesting solution have an increased field lifetime. High overall efficiency is maintained over a wide range of potential wind speeds, with little impact on anemometer measurement accuracy. View full abstract»

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    Short-Term Energy Balancing With Increasing Levels of Wind Energy

    Kiviluoma, J. ; Meibom, P. ; Tuohy, A. ; Troy, N. ; Milligan, M. ; Lange, B. ; Gibescu, M. ; O'Malley, M.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 3 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2012.2209210
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 769 - 776
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Increasing levels of wind energy are adding to the uncertainty and variability inherent in electricity grids and are consequently driving changes. Here, some of the possible evolutions in optimal short-term energy balancing to better deal with wind energy uncertainty are investigated. The focus is mainly on managing reserves through changes in scheduling, in particular market structure (more regular and higher resolution scheduling), reserve procurement (dynamic as opposed to static), and improved operational planning (stochastic as opposed to deterministic). Infrastructure changes including flexible plant, increased demand side participation, more interconnection, transmission, larger balancing areas, and critically improved forecasting can also be significant and are dealt with in the discussion. The evolutions are tightly coupled, their impact is system-dependent and so no “best” set is identifiable but experience of system operators will be critical to future developments. View full abstract»

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    A novel LVRT control strategy for Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter based high-power Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Diaz, M. ; Cardenas, R. ; Mauricio Espinoza, B. ; Mora, A. ; Rojas, F.
    Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), 2015 Tenth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EVER.2015.7113026
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1 - 11

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The trend of multimegawatt wind turbines has positioning multilevel converters as a promising solution for high-power Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs). Furthermore, due to the high penetration of wind energy into the electrical network, some rather strict grid regulations have been development in case of fault into the grid power. Mainly, grid codes set Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) requirements for grid connected WECS. In this scenario, this paper presents a novel modelation and control strategy to fulfil Low Voltage Ride Through requirements using a Modular Multilevel Matrix Converter for interfacing a high power wind turbine. View full abstract»

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    A wind energy generator for smart grid applications using wireless coding neuro-fuzzy power control

    Azcue, J.L. ; Sguarezi Filho, A.J. ; Capovilla, C.E. ; Casella, I.R.S. ; Ruppert, E.
    Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD), 2012 9th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/FSKD.2012.6233858
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 525 - 530

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The wind energy generation is the huge driver behind the push for supergrids and cross-border infrastructure for renewable energy systems into smart grids. To provide balance supply, demand, and storage of energy over a region in a much more efficient manner than it is done today, smart grids will need to use an advanced communication infrastructure into a robust control system. Towards this objective, it is proposed in this paper a wireless coding power control employing low density parity check coding to improve system robustness and reliability. For variable speed operation, the wind energy system uses a doubly-fed induction generator and a neuro-fuzzy controller. The performance improvements of the proposed system are investigated in different propagation conditions. View full abstract»

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    Modeling and control of a Doubly fed induction generator with battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy storage for wind power applications

    Bouharchouche, A. ; Berkouk, E.M. ; Ghennam, T. ; Tabbache, B.
    Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG), 2013 Fourth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/PowerEng.2013.6635818
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1392 - 1397
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energies in the world today, but the disadvantage is that wind power generation is intermittent, depending on weather conditions. Energy storage is necessary to get a smooth output from a wind system. This paper presents the control and energy management of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) with Battery-Supercapacitor hybrid energy storage, and an AC residential load, connected to the utility grid which is used as a backup source. Mathematical model is detailed for each component of the studied system. An overall power management strategy is designed for the system to coordinate the power flows among the different energy sources and the load demand. Simulation studies have been carried out using MATLAB/Simulink to verify the system performance under different scenarios. View full abstract»

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    Efficiency of three wind energy generator systems

    Grauers, A.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 11 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/60.537038
    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 650 - 657
    Cited by:  Papers (72)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents a method to calculate the average efficiency from the turbine shaft to the grid in wind energy converters. The average efficiency of three 500 kW systems are compared. The systems are: a conventional grid-connected four-pole induction generator equipped with a gear, a variable-speed synchronous generator equipped with a gear and a frequency converter, and a directly driven variable-speed generator equipped with a frequency converter. In this paper it is shown that a variable-speed generator system can be almost as efficient as one for constant speed, although it has much higher losses at rated load. The increased turbine efficiency that variable speed leads to has not been included in this paper. It is also found that a directly driven generator can be more efficient than a conventional four-pole generator equipped with a gear View full abstract»

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    A hybrid adaptive fuzzy control strategy for DFIG-based wind turbines with super-capacitor energy storage to realize short-term grid frequency support

    Xiang Hao ; Tianpei Zhou ; Jin Wang ; Xu Yang
    Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2015 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309930
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 1914 - 1918

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In general, the power systems with high penetration of renewable energies result in a system with a relatively low moment of inertia, and can be susceptible to significant frequency variations. However, the virtual inertia of wind power which imitates the kinetic inertia of synchronous generator can be used to improve the system dynamic behavior. This paper presents a novel hybrid adaptive fuzzy control scheme that utilizes both the rotating mass of the DFIG and a super-capacitor bank as the virtual inertia sources for DFIG-Based wind energy applications to provide short-term frequency regulation support. First, in order to compensate the intermittent nature of the wind, a super-capacitor is connected to the DC link of the back-to-back converters and an additional adaptive fuzzy controller is added to the supper-capacitor system controller to realize the short-term frequency support. In a ddition, to reduce the cost of the supper-capacitor, by utilizing the rotating mass of the DFIG, an adaptive fuzzy controller is also designed according to the deviation and derivative of the grid frequency for the active power regulation of the rotor-side converter to provide the optimal virtual inertia. Furthermore, a coordination optimizer is designed to obtain an optimal trade-off between the energy output from the DFIG rotating mass and the energy from the super-capacitor. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. View full abstract»

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    The practical impacts of large penetrations of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks

    Nicholson, Guy
    Electricity Distribution, 2005. CIRED 2005. 18th International Conference and Exhibition on

    DOI: 10.1049/cp:20051211
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IET Conference Publications

    With around 50,000MW of wind power generation installed globally, most of the issues relating to connection of individual projects are now well understood. The three key distribution network issues that determine how much generating capacity can be connected to a distribution network are voltage rise, thermal limits and, to a lesser extent for wind, fault levels. Innovations are underway to reduce the impact of these problems and improve the utilisation of traditionally passive distribution networks for generation [1,2]. The key questions under discussion now are how do large wind energy penetrations affect networks, power systems, markets, and current transmission practices? How can these be developed and evolved to accommodate wind energy? This is particularly pertinent in liberalised regulated networks where wind energy is the first technical paradigm shift since liberalisation took place The issues of high wind penetration in power systems are not new. There have already been successful small systems running on high penetrations up to 100% wind power [3]. This paper considers the key issues being discussed in the industry and gives some examples to show the relative importance of different issues and how the real problems can be addressed. View full abstract»

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    Modular isolated high frequency medium voltage (MV) step-up resonant DC/DC converters with high-gain rectifier for wind energy systems

    Moury, S. ; Lam, J.
    Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2015 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7310336
    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 4789 - 4796

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Conventional offshore wind farms with medium voltage (MV) AC grid require low frequency step-up transformer to boost the output voltage of the wind turbine. In order to eliminate the bulky MV step-up transformers in MVAC grid, the use of a MV step-up DC/DC converter in MVDC grid is an attractive alternative. In this paper, two modular MV step-up DC/DC converter topologies that combine multiple modules of step-up resonant circuits and high frequency high gain rectifiers are proposed for MVDC grid in wind energy system. Due to the combination of multiple step-up resonant circuits and the high gain rectifiers, the proposed converters are able to achieve high voltage gain without using large turns ratio high frequency step-up transformers. In addition, ZVS turn-on ZCS turn-off are achieved on the inverter side switches to minimize the switching losses. The switching frequency is varied to regulate the output medium voltage for different wind speed conditions. The description and the operating principles of the proposed converter are provided in this paper. Results on a 5MW, 3.3kVac/40kV wind turbine system are presented to highlight the merits of this work. View full abstract»

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    Composite generation and transmission system adequacy assessment considering wind energy seasonal characteristics

    Yi Gao ; Billinton, R. ; Karki, R.
    Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES '09. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2009.5275728
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper examines the impact of seasonal changes in wind speed on the adequacy of composite generation and transmission systems with large-scale wind energy facilities. The relevant seasonal models are used to compare the system reliability indices obtained using annual models and seasonal models. The studies were conducted on the two test systems using a state sampling Monte Carlo approach. The studies presented illustrate the annual wind profile is an acceptable representation and that annual studies can be done directly using this profile. The procedures presented in this paper for creating seasonal/monthly wind energy conversion system models should be prove useful in situations where time period models are required to incorporate scheduled generation and transmission facility outages. View full abstract»

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    Wind Energy - A Utility Perspective

    Fung, K.T. ; Scheffler, R.L. ; Stolpe, J.
    Power Apparatus and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PAS-100 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/TPAS.1981.316586
    Publication Year: 1981 , Page(s): 1176 - 1182
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Of all the renewable energy systems, wind turbine generators (WTG's) are likely to make the earliest significant cost-effective' contribution to the utility grid. In order to accelerate the commercial deployment of WTG's, several issues must be addressed in a timely manner. This paper presents some of the ' issues facing the utility industry as they relate to implementation of an effective wind energy program. In addition, the Southern California Edison Company's wind energy program is presented, which is designed to provide pertinent answers to the technical, economic and environmental issues concerning WTG installations and their commercial viability as a future generation resource View full abstract»

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    Optimal operation via a recurrent neural network of a wind-solar energy system

    Gamez, M.E. ; Sanchez, E.N. ; Ricalde, L.J.
    Neural Networks (IJCNN), The 2011 International Joint Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2011.6033505
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2222 - 2228
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper focuses on the optimal operation of a wind-solar energy system, interconnected to the utility grid; moreover, it incorporates batteries for energy storing and supplying, and an electric car. It presents a neural network optimization approach combined with a multi-agent system (MAS). The objective is to determine the optimal amounts of power for wind, solar, and batteries, including the one of the electric car, in order to minimize the amount of energy to be provided by the utility grid. Simulation results illustrate that generation levels for each energy source can be reached in an optimal form using the proposed method. View full abstract»

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    A Novel Control Scheme for Current-Source-Converter-Based PMSG Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Jingya Dai ; Xu, D.D. ; Bin Wu
    Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 24 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2008.2010259
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 963 - 972
    Cited by:  Papers (76)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A novel control scheme for permanent-magnet synchronous generator is proposed in this paper, where a current-source converter is employed as the bridge between the generator and the grid for high-power wind energy conversion systems. In these medium voltage (2.3-13.8 kV) level applications, current-source converters not only have inherent advantages, but also present some challenges for controller design due to the DC link choke and filter capacitors. The control strategy is developed to achieve better performances with improved dynamic response. By maintaining the grid-side converter modulation index at the highest possible level, the proposed control scheme reduces the DC link current to a minimum value to reduce converter conduction loss. The systempsilas dynamic performance is further improved by adopting generator-side power feedforward. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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    Probability-based method for power capacity specification of wind energy storage systems

    Wenzhong Gao ; Xiaoyu Wang ; Muljadi, E.
    Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2011 6th IEEE Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICIEA.2011.5975930
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2050 - 2055
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this paper. A probability-based power capacity specification approach is proposed in this paper. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to bridge the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. Comparing to BESS for accommodating wind power fluctuations, HESS is more cost-effective due to the extension of BESS lifetime. The super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant. View full abstract»

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    Wind Generation in Day-Ahead Energy Markets in Italy: Imbalances Penalties

    Brunetto, C. ; Nicita, M. ; Tina, G.
    Power Tech, 2007 IEEE Lausanne

    DOI: 10.1109/PCT.2007.4538441
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 938 - 942
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In Italy there has been recently a growing interest in wind energy exploitation. This situation is fostered by the adopted incentive mechanism and by the possibility to sell the energy directly into the Pool or using a regulated tariff option. In this paper an evaluation of the economic opportunity for these two choices has been carried out. Moreover in Italy the wind imbalance costs are compensated by all the consumers. Considering the same market structure and referring to the state-of-the-art of wind power forecasting the imbalances penalties of some Sicilian wind farms have been compared with the achievable gain into the Pool with respect to a regulated tariff. Using different stochastic approaches and with the historical data, easily available both for the system operator and for the electrical regulator, various scenarios have been analyzed. Thus a possible mechanism for imbalance settlement has been proposed in order to maintain the pool more profitable than regulated tariff and to foster the use of good forecasting methods. View full abstract»

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    Control strategy for a mid-size wind energy convertion system

    Alvarado-Barrios, L. ; Mauricio, J.M. ; Maza-Ortega, J.M. ; Gomez-Exposito, A.
    Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDAM.2010.5542228
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 396 - 402

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A control strategy for a mid-size Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) based Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) operating under unbalanced voltages and currents is presented in this paper. The analyzed WECS is based on a PMSM connected through a non-controlled rectifier to the DC-bus. This paper proposes a new control strategy for improving the wind energy conversion efficiency based on the DC voltage regulation. In addition, in order to eliminate over-currents risk during unbalanced conditions, a control scheme has been designed to independently control positive and negative sequence currents. The proposed controller is based on the feedback linearization technique and shows an improvement in the system performance regarding 2ω ripple elimination in the DC voltage arising during AC-side imbalances and an accurate and decoupled active and reactive power tracking. View full abstract»

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    A direct drive of multiple multi-pole synchronous generators for wind energy conversion systems

    Chanthavong, P. ; Suwankawin, S. ; Akagi, H.
    Electrical Engineering/Electronics Computer Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2010 International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1021 - 1025

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a direct drive of multiple multi-pole synchronous generators for wind energy conversion system. The concept of multiple-synchronous-generator drive is demonstrated by a single current-controlled inverter feeding 2 multi-pole synchronous generators connected in parallel. In addition, the torque unbalance of the drive is investigated by taking into account the parameters mismatch among two synchronous generators. Accordingly, the proposed driver is set up with maximum-power-point-tracking scheme and the given simulation results show the technical feasibility of the proposal for the wind energy conversion system. View full abstract»

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    Voltage control assessment of wind energy harvesting networks

    Sáiz-Marín, E. ; Lobato, E. ; Egido, I. ; Gómez-Sánchez, C.
    Renewable Power Generation, IET

    Volume: 8 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2013.0308
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 915 - 924

    IET Journals & Magazines

    Current technology developments allow the provision of voltage/reactive control of wind turbines. This study focuses on the impact of wind power voltage control on both the transmission network (TNet) and the wind energy harvesting network (HNet). Different possibilities of implementing the control representative of the current situation where wind farms maintain a fixed power factor and future situation where wind farms will provide a proportional voltage control are tested. In addition, optimal controls with a certain objective function such as minimising the HNet losses or optimising the reactive power delivered to the TNet are implemented for comparison purposes. The impact of each implementation of voltage control on the HNet is assessed by means of the value of grid losses, whereas the impact on TNet is measured by the PQ capability curve and the voltage value at the bus that connects the wind energy HNet with the TNet. In addition, the importance of the transformers taps in the control is evaluated and conclusions depending on the topology of the network are obtained thanks to the analysis of two actual Spanish networks. View full abstract»

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    A simple maximum power point tracker for grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system with reduced switch count power converters

    Raju, A.B. ; Chatterjee, K. ; Fernandes, B.G.
    Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 2003. PESC '03. 2003 IEEE 34th Annual

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/PESC.2003.1218149
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 748 - 753 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a simple control strategy for an optimal extraction of output power from grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system (VSWECS) with reduced switch count power converters is presented. In order to improve the overall efficiency and to reduce the cost, B-4 PWM converters are used. The system consists of a variable speed wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) through a gear box, two PWM B4-power converters. Output power from PMSG is first converted into DC and then it is fed to the grid. Both the power conversions are performed at unity power factor and the DC link voltage is maintained constant. The MPPT extracts optimum power from the wind turbine from cut-in to rated wind velocity by sensing only the turbine output power. The complete system has been simulated for various wind velocities. The control algorithm is implemented on TMS320F243 DSP and the simulated results are validated by experimental results. View full abstract»

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    Determination of optimum economic power commitment by wind farms equipped with energy storage system

    Matee, E.S. ; Radman, G.
    SOUTHEASTCON 2014, IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/SECON.2014.6950687
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind energy is an intermittent energy source; it is also a variable resource. In future electricity markets, wind farms may have to commit to deliver constant power for a given delivery period as any current conventional sources. Literatures have concentrated in the revision of current unit commitment formulation as a mean of integrating wind power in the grid network. Also, the use of energy storage system (ESS) has been suggested so as to reduce the variability of the wind output power. This paper proposes an optimization strategy to determine the optimum output power commitment by wind farms to the grid network so as to maximize the profit to the wind farm owner. Consideration is made to the wind farm output power, loss of life of ESS and market penalty costs. Microsoft Excel, MATLAB and Brute force method are used to solve this optimization problem. View full abstract»

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    Voltage and frequency control with neutral current compensation in an isolated wind energy conversion system

    Kasal, G.K. ; Singh, B. ; Chandra, A. ; Kamal-Al-Haddad
    Industrial Electronics, 2008. IECON 2008. 34th Annual Conference of IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2008.4758308
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2259 - 2264
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a voltage and frequency controller with neutral current compensation in an isolated wind energy conversion system employing a capacitor excited asynchronous generator (CEAG). In isolated applications, because of unavailability of the neutral point at the generator terminals, it is difficult to access the neutral wire from the source. In view of this, a transformer integrated with a voltage source converter (VSC) based voltage and frequency controller is used to provide the neutral terminal for the single phase consumer loads. A star delta transformer is used to provide the path for flow of the load neutral current. The complete standalone system is modeled and simulated for isolated wind energy conversion system in MATLAB using Simulink and power system blockset (PSB). View full abstract»

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    Power quality impact on grid-connected wind energy conversion system

    Tourou, P. ; Schael, M. ; Sourkounis, C.
    MedPower 2014

    DOI: 10.1049/cp.2014.1645
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IET Conference Publications

    The performance of grid-connected wind energy conversion systems with doubly-fed induction generators can be severely affected by grid events and low power quality, as the stator of the generator is directly connected to the grid. This paper presents power quality phenomena commonly encountered in the electrical grid and analyses their effect on the performance of DFIG-based wind energy conversion systems. Different solutions in the form of additional hardware and enhancement in the control system of the DFIG will be discussed, which are able to mitigate these negative effects. View full abstract»

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    Piezoelectric Converter for Wind Energy Harvesting

    Taufik, T. ; Thornton, J. ; Dolan, D.
    Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG), 2012 Ninth International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ITNG.2012.38
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 221 - 224

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents wind energy harvesting using piezoelectric material. The method includes a proposed topology which utilizes multiple inputs for a DC-DC converter. The new topology is derived from a standard buck topology but allows for sourcing from multiple inputs either independently or simultaneously. The purpose of this topology is to take advantage of several sources of energy harvesting from renewable sources, and specifically aimed at piezoelectric wind harvesting. This paper derives the general transfer function for the new topology and provides simulations for various cases to show proof of concept. Results from computer simulations demonstrate the potential and benefits that the proposed topology offers for harvesting wind energy using piezoelectric. View full abstract»

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    Integrated Doubly Fed Electric Alternator/Active Filter (IDEA), a Viable Power Quality Solution, for Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Abolhassani, M.T. ; Enjeti, P. ; Hamid Toliyat
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 23 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2007.914181
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 642 - 650
    Cited by:  Papers (30)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In response to electric energy crisis and power quality concerns, a simple and low-cost variable speed integrated doubly fed electric alternator/active filter (IDEA) for wind energy conversion systems is proposed. The proposed IDEA is capable of simultaneously capturing maximum power of wind energy with fluctuating wind speed and improving power quality, which are achieved by canceling the most significant and troublesome harmonics of the utility grid. Power factor correction and reactive power control are the other two significant features of the proposed technology. The back-to-back current-regulated power converters are employed to excite the rotor of IDEA. The control strategy of rotor side power converter is based on position sensorless field oriented control method with higher power density. A laboratory prototype has been fabricated and tested, and a TMS3202407 DSP-based controller has been used to control the back-to-back power converters. Analysis and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed integrated IDEA. View full abstract»

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    Estimation of Energy Yield From Wind Farms Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Mabel, M.C. ; Fernandez, E.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 24 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2008.2001458
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 459 - 464
    Cited by:  Papers (12)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper uses the data from seven wind farms at Muppandal, Tamil Nadu, India, collected for three years from April 2002 to March 2005 for the estimation of energy yield from wind farms. The model is developed with the help of neural network methodology, and it involves three input variables-wind speed, relative humidity, and generation hours-and one output variable, which give the energy output from wind farms. The modeling is done using MATLAB software. The most appropriate neural network configuration after trial and error is found to be 3-5-1 (3 input layer neurons, 5 hidden layer neurons, 1 output layer neuron). The mean square error for the estimated values with respect to the measured data is 7.6times10-3. The results demonstrate that this work is an efficient energy yield estimation tool for wind farms. View full abstract»

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    Control Structure for Single-Phase Stand-Alone Wind-Based Energy Sources

    Barote, L. ; Marinescu, C. ; Cirstea, M.N.
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 60 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2206346
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 764 - 772
    Cited by:  Papers (20)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper is analyzing the operation of a stand-alone wind turbine system with variable-speed permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) and a system for storing energy during wind speed and load variations. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand-alone wind energy systems. Initially, the holistic model of the entire system is achieved, including the PMSG, the boost converter, and the storage system. The power absorbed by the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. The main purpose is to supply 230-V/50-Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The simulation results, validated by experimental testing, show a good prediction of the electrical parameter waveforms. The control system is implemented on a dSPACE DS1103 real-time board. Furthermore, the results confirm the stability of the supply. View full abstract»

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    Estimation of wind turbine and solar photovoltaic energy using variant sampling intervals

    Abbes, D. ; Martinez, A. ; Champenois, G. ; Gaubert, J.P. ; Kadri, R.
    Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), 2010 14th International

    DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2010.5606826
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): T12-28 - T12-34
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, we estimate renewable energy from wind and solar for different sites. Two methods are applied in case of wind energy: Weibull distribution and direct integration methodology. In additional, influence of the data sampling interval is studied. Results show that the computational method based on the integration of the power is more accurate. Also, it is shown that the hourly time resolution provides satisfactory accuracy in wind and solar resource estimation, in comparison with one minute's resolution. Results allow better design for hybrid systems (wind and photovoltaic energy). Moreover, Data acquisitions are minimized. A shorter time of treatment and less expensive measurement equipments are required. View full abstract»

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    Position Sensorless Control of Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Energy Conversion

    Xulong Zhang ; Guojun Tan ; Songyan Kuai ; Qihu Wang
    Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2010 Asia-Pacific

    DOI: 10.1109/APPEEC.2010.5449249
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a novel sensorless control system of switched reluctance generator (SRG) in order to reduce cost, simplify system structure and increase reliability. Considering nonlinear characteristics of SRG and robustness of sliding mode observer (SMO), sensorless control method of SRG based on SMO is proposed and analyzed. For wind energy conversion system (WECS), a voltage-source PWM inverter is used to make power output of SRG connect to the grid (or ac load). The SRG phase current was regulated by current chopping control method (CCC). An 18.5 kW three-phase 12/8 SRG experimental prototype was constructed and wind turbine mover was emulated using a DC motor drive. Test results using dual TMS320F2812 DSP as control core verified validity and feasibility of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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