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    Optimal Operation Strategy of Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants

    Zhen Shu ; Jirutitijaroen, P.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 5 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2013.2278406
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 190 - 199

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper proposes an adaptive optimal policy for hourly operation of an energy storage system (ESS) in a grid-connected wind power company. The purpose is to time shift wind energy to maximize the expected daily profit following uncertainties in wind generation and electricity price. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) framework is adopted to formulate this problem, and an objective function approximation method is applied to improve the SDP computational efficiency. Case studies on the Electric Reliability Council of Texas demonstrate that the resultant profits from SDP-based operation policy are considerably higher than those from deterministic policy, and comparable to those from the perfect information model. It is concluded that the presented SDP approach can provide operation policy highly adaptive to uncertainties arising from wind and price. The proposed framework can help the wind company optimally manage its generation with ESS. View full abstract»

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    Artificial neural network-based maximum power point tracking control for variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Thongam, J.S. ; Bouchard, P. ; Ezzaidi, H. ; Ouhrouche, M.
    Control Applications, (CCA) & Intelligent Control, (ISIC), 2009 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/CCA.2009.5281181
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1667 - 1671
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller using artificial neural networks (ANN) for variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The algorithm uses Jordan recurrent ANN and is trained online using back propagation. The inputs to the networks are the instantaneous output power, maximum output power, rotor speed and wind speed, and the output is the rotor speed command signal for the WECS. The network output after a time step delay is used as the feed-back signal completing the Jordan recurrent ANN. Simulation is carried out in order to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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    HILS systems applied to real time emulation for wind energy study

    Caraiman, G. ; Nichita, C. ; Dakyo, B. ; Chul Hee Jo
    Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6700412
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 7675 - 7680

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The purpose of this paper is to present a real time wind simulator and it's different uses. Given the fact that the simulator is based on a doubly fed induction generator, one of the uses can be the study of different aspects of grid connection and impacts of different faults that may occur in normal operation of wind systems. The studied system is a variable speed wind turbine system with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the generator is directly connected to the grid while the rotor is connected through a back-to-back converter which is dimensioned to stand only for a fraction of the generator rated power. The simulator is developed using Hardware-in the-Loop techniques and in order to provide the static and dynamic characteristics of a wind turbine system. We analyzed and developed an experimental system consisting of two main parts: a real time software simulator and an electromechanical system. The Electromechanical System is composed from three electrical drives: an asynchronous machine that emulates the wind turbine, an asynchronous generator, used to study the energy conversion and grid connection problems. The Software simulator is a supervising and control subsystem and is composed from a computational unit and different interface devices. This subsystem is designed equally to study the capability of the classical network to support wind turbine penetration and grid faults impacts. Experimental results from the simulator are presented in order to compare different simulation procedures. View full abstract»

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    Short-term memory-based control of wind energy conversion systems

    Xiao-Yan Mei ; Sun, Z. ; Bin Li ; Zhi Yang ; Song, Y.D.
    Computer Aided Control System Design, 2006 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, 2006 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/CACSD-CCA-ISIC.2006.4777026
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2462 - 2467

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Variable speed wind turbine control is essential in extracting maximum electric power out of available wind power. The paper presents a memory-based method for variable speed control of wind energy conversion systems. The fundamental idea behind the method is to use certain memorized information (i.e., current rotor speed tracking error, most recent speed tracking error, and previous control experience) to directly modify the control command. The salient feature of the proposed approach lies in its simplicity in design and implementation. Furthermore, the total required memory space does not grow with time and is much smaller than most existing learning control methods. It is shown that this method, when applied to firing angle control of wind turbines, is able to ensure rotor speed tracking in the presence of varying operation conditions, as verified via computer simulation View full abstract»

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    H APF harmonic mitigation technique for PMSG wind energy conversion system

    Tsai, J. ; Tan, K.
    Power Engineering Conference, 2007. AUPEC 2007. Australasian Universities

    DOI: 10.1109/AUPEC.2007.4548018
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (8)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper focuses on current harmonics mitigation at the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine system using a variable frequency active power filter (VF-APF) harmonic mitigation technique. Mitigation of current harmonics in the PMSG reduces harmonic losses, thus reducing the heating effect on the PMSG cause by the current harmonic components and extends the lifespan of the PMSG. The current harmonics in the wind turbine system is mainly caused by non-linear loading effect from the AC-DC converter in the wind energy conversion system (WECS). Therefore, to filter current harmonics component in the PMSG, a conventional fixed frequency grid connected 3-phase-shunt APF is applied to compensate the current harmonics in the WECS PMSG generator. The conventional APF is coupled with a phase-lock-loop (PLL) synchronizer to facilitate variable frequency functionality. The simulation results shown in this paper is conducted at PMSG WECS maximum power point conditions. The demonstrated results show that the designed VF-APF successfully mitigates the PMSG current harmonic over a wide range of wind speed. View full abstract»

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    Multilevel Modular DC/DC Power Converter for High Voltage DC-Connected Offshore Wind Energy Applications

    Parastar, A. ; Kang, Y. ; Seok, J.
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2014.2363818
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    Recently, the interest in offshore wind farms has been increased significantly because of the stronger and more stable winds at sea, which will lead to a higher power production. DC/DC power conversion solutions are becoming more popular for fulfilling the growing challenges in the high voltage DC-connected offshore wind power industry. This paper presents several multilevel modular DC/DC conversion systems based on the capacitor-clamped module concept for high power offshore wind energy applications. Two types of the capacitor-clamped modules, the double-switch module and switchless module, are discussed. A soft-switching technique is adopted to achieve minimal switching losses and the maximum system efficiency. Theoretical analysis is carried out for the 2n+1 level cascaded configurations based on the capacitor-clamped modules. The inherent interleaving property of the proposed configurations effectively reduces the output voltage ripple without adding extra components. A cascaded hybrid topology is developed by the combination of double-switch and switchless modules. The proposed hybrid topology achieves higher efficiency and lower component count. The cascaded hybrid approach is evaluated in terms of the power device count, reliability, and efficiency against other high voltage DC/DC topologies to demonstrate its advantage for high voltage DC-connected offshore wind farms. The experimental results of two 5-kW prototype capacitor-clamped converters are presented to validate the theoretical analysis and principles as well as attest the feasibility of the proposed topologies. View full abstract»

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    Active power control of a flywheel energy storage system for wind energy applications

    Suvire, G.O. ; Mercado, P.E.
    Renewable Power Generation, IET

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2010.0155
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 9 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The integration of wind power generation in power systems is steadily increasing around the world. This incorporation can bring problems onto the dynamics of power systems owing to the lack of controllability over the wind and the type of generation used. In this work, a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) coupled with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is used to mitigate problems introduced by wind generation in the electric system. A dynamic model of the DSTATCOM/FESS device is briefly presented and a technique to control the active power exchanged between the device and the power system is proposed. The control technique is based on fuzzy logic and a special filter. Tests of the behaviour of the device are analysed when combined with wind generation in the electric system. Results show an overall satisfactory performance of the proposed control technique along with the high effectiveness of the device used to smooth the active power fluctuations of a wind generator. View full abstract»

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    Evaluation of energy storage devices for renewable energies integration: Application to a Portuguese wind farm

    Faias, Sergio ; Santos, P. ; Matos, F. ; Sousa, J. ; Castro, R.
    Electricity Market, 2008. EEM 2008. 5th International Conference on European

    DOI: 10.1109/EEM.2008.4579112
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper evaluates the benefits of energy storage systems applied to renewable intermittent sources like wind. With this objective, a 144 MW Portuguese wind farm is used as a case-study. The storage system design and evaluation processes use a computational tool developed in MatLab to simulate the wind farm operation with an energy storage system and computes the remuneration tariff. The energy storage design settles on a system of 5 MW with 30 MWh. The simulation results show a 2.1% gain in wind farm tariff and a improved adjustment on generation to the typical electricity demand curve. Considering the storage system design and an available storage technology survey, one concludes that redox flow batteries are the best suited to application, in spite of their present prices being not the most advantage. View full abstract»

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    Advanced digital control for the harmonization of wind-based energy in the electric power supply

    Muhando, E.B. ; Senjyu, T. ; Tokudome, M. ; Funabashi, T.
    Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition: Asia and Pacific, 2009

    DOI: 10.1109/TD-ASIA.2009.5356999
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As wind turbines continue to grow in size and flexibility and are deployed in more hostile environments, the need to develop advanced control schemes will be elemental to deliver the lowest possible energy costs. This paper explores controller design based on modeling the wind speed as a stochastic process, and the wind generating system (WGS) as a multi-mass system with a soft shaft linking the turbine with the asynchronous generator. The control objectives are to enhance reduction in stresses on the drive-train and to ensure operation geared toward optimal power conversion. A sophisticated control strategy incorporating a multi-objective, full-state feedback with state estimation linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) for generator torque control is proposed. This study focuses on above rated wind speeds, and the LQG's main purpose is to add damping to the drive-train, thereby minimizing cyclic fatigue, while a pitch mechanism prevents rotor overspeed thus ensuring the maximum power constraint is respected. Simulations show the efficacy of the proposed paradigm in meeting the control objectives. View full abstract»

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    Consensus-based P-f /Q-V droop control in autonomous micro-grids with wind generators and energy storage systems

    Lin-Yu Lu ; Chia-Chi Chu
    PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, 2014 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939529
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper studies consensus-based P-f/Q-V droop control in autonomous micro-grids with wind generators and energy storage systems. The consensus control is achieved by deploying sparse and band-limited communication networks such that neighbouring DICs can communicate each other. Two droop control schemes, including (i) the uniform droop gain ratio scheme and (ii) the non-uniform droop gain ratio scheme, are examined. It will shown that the non-uniform droop gain ratio can indeed simplify the droop gain setting while maintaining more accurate power sharing. Modelling issues related to renewable generators and energy storage systems are also considered. Both DC-link voltage control for DICs with intermittent power input and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) inductor current control for DICs are proposed. In order to capture dynamical behaviours of large deviations, non-linear Transient Energy Functions (TEFs) of the micro-grid are constructed to ensure the stability of the closed-loop system and accurate active/reactive power sharing even under large variations of loads/generations or even line outages. Real-time simulations of a 14-bus/6-converter micro-grid system with wind generations and energy storage systems are performed. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of this consensus-based droop control method. View full abstract»

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    Simulation of a high penetration wind Diesel system with a Ni-Cd battery Energy Storage

    Sebastian, R. ; Pena, R.
    Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2009.5414864
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 4589 - 4594
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    High wind penetration Wind Diesel Hybrid Systems (WDHS) have three operation modes: Diesel Only (DO), Wind Diesel (WD) and Wind Only (WO). The WDHS presented in this article consists of a Diesel Engine (DE), a Synchronous Machine (SM), a Wind Turbine Generator, the consumer Load, a Ni-Cd Battery based Energy Storage System (BESS) and a Dump Load. The DE can be engaged (DO and WD modes) or disengaged (WO mode) from the SM by means of a clutch. All the models of the previously mentioned components are presented and the performance of the WDHS has been tested through simulation using the MATLAB-Simulink environment. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency, voltage and active powers for the elements of the Isolated Power System are presented for wind speed changes in WO mode and for the transition from WO to WD mode. View full abstract»

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    Design and implementation of PMSG based stand-alone wind energy system for three-phase four-wire loads

    Singh, B. ; Sharma, S.
    Power India Conference, 2012 IEEE Fifth

    DOI: 10.1109/PowerI.2012.6479584
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper deals with design and implementation of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based stand-alone wind energy conversion system for three-phase four-wire loads. A three-leg voltage source converter (VSC) along with a battery energy storage system is used to control voltage and frequency. AT-connected transformer is used to provide stable neutral terminal for three-phase four-wire consumer loads. A systematic design procedure is described for such SWECS. A digital signal processor (DSP) is used to realize the control algorithm to control the operation of VSC. Test results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of proposed PMSG based SWECS under various operating conditions. View full abstract»

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    Robust performance of self-scheduled LPV control of doubly-fed induction generator in wind energy conversion systems

    Tien, H.N. ; Scherer, C.W. ; Scherpen, J.M.A.
    Power Electronics and Applications, 2007 European Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2007.4417460
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper describes the design of a self-scheduled current controller for doubly-fed induction generators in wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The design is based on viewing the mechanical angular speed as an uncertain yet online measurable parameter and on subsuming the problem into the framework of linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller synthesis. An LPV controller is then synthesized to guarantee a bound on the worst-case energy gain for all admissible trajectories of rotor speed in the operating range. Furthermore, this study investigates the robust performance of the LPV controller with respect to other bounded machine parameter variations and the impact of the stator voltage dips on the robustness of the control system. Two closed loop simulation models, one with a conventional control scheme and the other with an LPV control scheme, are developed for the control of the electrical torque and the power factor on the rotor side in order to compare the performance of the control systems. Some simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance and robustness of the control algorithm. View full abstract»

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    A complementary hybrid system for electricity generation based on solar and wind energy taking into account local consumption - Case study

    Merzic, A. ; Music, M. ; Redzic, E.
    Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems (EPECS), 2013 3rd International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EPECS.2013.6712993
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, the complementary nature of wind and solar energy has been considered, especially by analyzing output power variations from a photovoltaic power plant (PVPP), a wind power plant (WPP) and their combination in a hybrid system. For these purposes, an own model has been made, with calculations based on real wind and solar energy potential data. Two hybrid system configurations have been observed; the first where both generating facilities have equal installed capacities (i.e. 2 MW each) and the second where the installed capacity of the WPP is five times larger. Effects of implementing these hybrid power systems have been verified by carrying out a simulation study using a practical load demand profile, with a recorded maximum hourly value of 3.5 MW. The complementary nature is more expressed in the first hybrid system configuration, where a decrease in the output power variations from the hybrid system considered as a whole in comparison with variations when considering generating facilities individually, has been observed. But, this hybrid system configuration manages to meet hourly consumption in only 7.06% of time. The complementary effect is reduced in the second hybrid system configuration, and output power variations have been observed in a very wide range. However, this system manages to meet hourly consumer needs in 41% of the time. Neither one of the two cases can independently satisfy observed demand on hourly basis. Acknowledging the fact that in the second case there are periods of time when the generated electricity is up to 3.5 times higher than the hourly consumption, as well as the positive difference between generation and consumption on annual basis, an off grid system would be feasible with proper storage facilities. View full abstract»

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    Intelligent control of a class of wind energy conversion systems

    Chedid, R. ; Mrad, F. ; Basma, M.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 14 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/60.815111
    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 1597 - 1604
    Cited by:  Papers (50)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper discusses the control problem for a class of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). It first develops a detailed model and then compares four control algorithms based on conventional and intelligent control theories. A simple PI conventional controller for the exciter loop is carried out by using a first order model. When the system operating points change, the PI controller fails to provide sufficient damping or acceptable performance. Therefore both fuzzy voltage and fuzzy power regulators are introduced. Also a conventional adaptive pitch controller is proposed to adjust the pitch angle of the rotor blades in order to maximize the energy capture and reduce the mechanical loads. As an alternative to this controller, a neural network controller is also designed. Using the existing nonlinear wind model and the different control algorithms, the dynamic behavior of the controlled (WECS) is simulated. By selecting convenient wind data, the system characteristics such as its tracking performance, its robustness and its ability to recover from large disturbances are studied and discussed View full abstract»

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    Modeling and control of aggregated Super-Capacitor Energy Storage system for wind power generation

    Xiao Li ; Changsheng Hu ; Changjin Liu ; Dehong Xu
    Industrial Electronics, 2008. IECON 2008. 34th Annual Conference of IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2008.4758501
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 3370 - 3375
    Cited by:  Papers (9)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind power fluctuations that have adverse impacts on power quality are becoming more serious as wind energy reaches higher level of penetration. This paper focuses on the control design of super-capacitor energy storage system (SCES) which serves for the whole wind farm. The control method of the aggregated SCES is proposed for smoothing medium frequency wind power fluctuations and maintaining wind farm terminal voltage. A modified SCES controller is studied including active and reactive power decoupled control, double-loop control of bidirectional buck-boost converter and super-capacitor voltage management. Design of the control loops are discussed based on the SCES small-signal model. The effectiveness of the control strategy is validated by simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. View full abstract»

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    A Review on Position/Speed Sensorless Control for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Yue Zhao ; Chun Wei ; Zhe Zhang ; Wei Qiao
    Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, IEEE Journal of

    Volume: 1 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2013.2280572
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 203 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Owing to the advantages of higher efficiency, greater reliability, and better grid compatibility, the direct-drive permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have drawn the highest attention from both academia and industry in the last few years. Applying mechanical position/speed sensorless control to direct-drive PMSG-based WECSs will further reduce the cost and complexity, while enhancing the reliability and robustness of the WECSs. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and highly applicable mechanical position/speed sensorless control schemes for PMSG-based variable-speed WECSs. These include wind speed sensorless control schemes, generator rotor position and speed sensorless vector control schemes, and direct torque and direct power control schemes for a variety of direct-drive PMSG-based WECSs. View full abstract»

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    A Statistical Approach to the Design of a Dispatchable Wind Power-Battery Energy Storage System

    Yao, D.L. ; Choi, S.S. ; Tseng, K.J. ; Lie, T.T.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 24 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2009.2025331
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 916 - 925
    Cited by:  Papers (25)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A scheme that allows the dispatch of steady and controllable level of power from a wind power generating station is proposed in this paper. The scheme utilizes two battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in which the generated wind power is used to charge one BESS, while the second BESS is used to discharge constant power into grid. The role of the two BESS interchanges when the discharging BESS reaches specified operating limit. With this scheme in mind and based on given wind speed statistics, charging characteristics of the BESS are studied, and a method to determine the expected charging time of the BESS to reach stipulated battery state of charge is developed. The expected BESS charging time, in turn, dictates the constant power level that can be dispatched to the grid through the discharging BESS. The corresponding discharge time is also determined using the developed method, the accuracy of which is validated experimentally. The proposed design procedure is then used to determine the minimum BESS capacity based on the expected wind power. Statistical likelihood of dispatchable power delivery achievable from the scheme is also obtained. View full abstract»

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    Flexible arrangement of static converters for grid connected wind energy conversion systems

    Grigoletto, F.B. ; Pinheiro, H.
    Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), 2013 15th European Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2013.6634756
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 10

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a new flexible arrangement of static converters for grid connected Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The proposed arrangement uses three phase voltage fed back-to-back mass produced power converter modules with reconfiguration switches. The main features of the proposed flexible arrangement are: (i) expanded reactive power capability limits, (ii) high efficiency mainly under low wind conditions where the active power is reduced, and (iii) low current harmonic content. In addition, a detailed description of the operating modes, as well as the grid, generator and circulating current controllers design are given. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the good performance and flexibility of the proposed arrangement. View full abstract»

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    Integration of energy storage with a doubly-fed induction machine for wind power applications

    Abbey, C. ; Joos, G.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2004. PESC 04. 2004 IEEE 35th Annual

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/PESC.2004.1355418
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1964 - 1968 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The doubly-fed induction machine has been shown to be a popular choice for wind power generators, due to the desirable features of variable speed operation, reduced converter size and the ability to control the real and reactive output power. For this topology, reactive power compensation can be supplied from both the supply side and rotor side converters and thus has the potential to provide voltage support. Addition of an energy storage element on the DC link can help to improve transient stability of the system as well as enable a greater level of control over the real power output. The storage element can be used to smooth the generator's power output by injecting real power under low wind conditions and storing energy during high wind conditions. The design of the proposed system and the control is presented and its feasibility is supported using its representation in EMTP-RV. View full abstract»

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    Compromising Wind and Solar Energies From the Power System Adequacy Viewpoint

    Safdarian, A. ; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M. ; Aminifar, F.
    Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 27 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2204409
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2368 - 2376
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    Miscellaneous sorts of renewable energies, despite of their positive impacts on the power system operation cost and environmental concerns, could jeopardize the system reliability due to introducing significant degrees of intermittency and uncertainty. This challenge could be overcome by composing various sources of renewable energies with complimentary natures. This paper devises an explicit mathematical framework to compromise the contribution of wind and solar energies. The optimization problem is to maximize the system reliability subject to a fixed monetary investment associated with both wind and solar. The problem formulation is based on mixed-integer programming (MIP) format in which the optimality of the solution is guaranteed or can be traded with the execution time. The decision variables are the number of wind turbines and solar modules to be deployed. In addition, uncertainties associated with the hourly load, wind speed, and solar radiation are captured by scenarios based on the probability density functions (PDF). These scenarios are generated by the Monte Carlo simulation method. They are then decreased to a tractable set using a scenario reduction technique. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through numerical evaluations using real field data. View full abstract»

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    Rotor turn-to-turn faults of doubly-fed Induction generators in wind energy plants - modelling, simulation and detection -

    Dinkhauser, V. ; Fuchs, F.W.
    Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2008. EPE-PEMC 2008. 13th

    DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635530
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1819 - 1826
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This work considers the seldomly treated case of rotor turn-to-turn fault of a doubly-fed induction generator. This fault can take place where the doubly-fed induction generator is a standard solution in wind power stations. For investigations an error-adoptable three phase machine model is derived and simulated. Furthermore the model is integrated in a wind energy plant model and simulated for a turn-to-turn fault in one rotor phase. Motor current signature analysis, wavelet transformation and the Luenberger observer are used for detection and are compared. View full abstract»

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    Stochastic distribution control for the permanent magnet synchronous generator based variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Jianhua Zhang ; Ye Tian ; Mifeng Ren ; Jinfang Zhang ; Guolian Hou
    Control and Decision Conference (CCDC), 2013 25th Chinese

    DOI: 10.1109/CCDC.2013.6561249
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1930 - 1935

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic model of the wind energy conversion system (WECS) is established. Due to the non-Gaussian randomness in the WECS introduced by the wind speed, stochastic distribution controller is designed for both maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and attenuation of disturbance. Compared with conventional PI controller, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by some experimental results. View full abstract»

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    A comparison of medium voltage high power DC/DC converters with high step-up conversion ratio for offshore wind energy systems

    Wu Chen ; Huang, A. ; Lukic, S. ; Svensson, J. ; Jun Li ; Zhenyuan Wang
    Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2011 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2011.6063822
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 584 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As one of the most important renewable energy sources, wind is widely utilized now. As well as onshore trend, offshore wind farms have also been continuing its growth rapidly due to much better wind conditions. One of the interesting options for offshore wind farms is a wind farm with an internal medium voltage DC (MVDC)-grid collection connected to a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission. Medium voltage high power DC/DC converters with high step-up conversion ration are the key components in the MVDC-grid collection offshore wind farms. In this paper, a review of medium voltage high power DC/DC converter topologies with high step-up conversion ratio is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of these converters are discussed. Finally, this paper lists some major challenges for the high power MVDC converters. View full abstract»

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    Sensorless control of PMSG in variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Thongam, J.S. ; Bouchard, P. ; Beguenane, R. ; Fofana, I. ; Ouhrouche, M.
    Power Electronics Conference (IPEC), 2010 International

    DOI: 10.1109/IPEC.2010.5542011
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2254 - 2259
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A sensorless control strategy for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The proposed method is based on recursive least square estimation (RLSE) algorithm for rotor speed estimation using an equation containing only stator flux and current. Further, rotor position information used for coordinate transformation is computed using the estimated speed. Stator flux required for speed estimation is obtained using a programmable low pass filter (PLPF). The estimated speed is used as the feedback signal for the speed control loop of the vector controlled machine side converter control system whose command speed is obtained from a wind speed sensorless maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The front end converter is vector controlled in grid voltage reference frame. Simulation is carried out in order to verify the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

  • Open Access

    Energy-Efficient Dynamic Drive Control for Wind Power Conversion With PMSG: Modeling and Application of Transfer Function Analysis

    Kuschke, M. ; Strunz, K.
    Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, IEEE Journal of

    Volume: 2 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2013.2293632
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 35 - 46

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A method for transfer function based modeling offering an in-depth insight into the systemic behavior of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) is developed. The originally nonlinear behavior of the drive system covering turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator, and power electronic converter is rearranged and linearized resulting in a compact transfer function description. The locations of transfer function poles and zeros and related stability are readily identified as a function of WECS parameters and the operating point. Drive control design rules making use of the transfer functions for setting the compensation parameters depending on the wind speed are established. The behavioral differences between speed and power control loops can readily be appreciated. The synthesis of a power control loop to closely follow maximum available wind power is performed based on the design rules. In this context, the voltage sourced converter is operated in current mode control to contribute to fast adjustment of air-gap torque while maintaining currents within limits. The direct and quadrature current references are calculated to attain the desired torque at minimal stator current magnitude and so enhance energy efficiency. The dynamic performance of the design is evidenced by time-domain simulation and stochastic analysis. View full abstract»

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    Modified DFIG control strategy for wind energy applications

    Eltamaly, A.M. ; Alolah, A.I. ; Abdel-Rahman, M.H.
    Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDAM.2010.5542208
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 653 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A detailed computer simulation for interconnecting wind energy system to an electric utility is presented. The proposed system consists of four high rating wind turbines each one uses double fed induction generator (DFIG). Two back to back bidirectional PWM inverters are used in the rotor circuit of each DFIG to be interfaced with the electrical utility. The simulation incorporates a flexible independent control for the active and reactive powers by using field oriented control technique. Also it introduces an effective technique to track the maximum power point of the wind energy by controlling the pitch angle and rotational speed. Active power is controlled through the direct axis current of the rotor side converter in outer control layer. Reactive power is controlled by the quadrature axis current of the rotor side converter. The system shows a stable operation under different operating conditions. View full abstract»

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    Performance analysis of a wind energy conversion system based on a doubly-fed induction generator

    Hachicha, F. ; Krichen, L.
    Systems, Signals and Devices (SSD), 2011 8th International Multi-Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SSD.2011.5767481
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper is interested in the study of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the electric power network. The aim of this work is to compare the energy production unit performances by the use of two types of controllers. Classical PI and polynomial RST controllers are applied for the WECS control in terms of instruction tracking and robustness with respect to the wind fluctuation and the impact on the produced energy quality. A vector control with stator flux orientation of the DFIG is also presented. View full abstract»

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    Application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for voltage sag/swell supression in distribution system with wind power penetration

    Said, S.M. ; Aly, M.M. ; Abdel-Akher, M.
    Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), 2014 IEEE 16th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICHQP.2014.6842877
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 92 - 96

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents the impacts superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in suppressing the voltage sag/swell in distribution systems with wind power penetration. Wind turbine used in this paper is of squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) with shunt connected capacitor bank to improve the power factor. SMES system consists of step down transformer, power conditioning system, DC-DC chopper, and large inductance superconducting coil. Wind energy generation system (WEGS) and SMES system connected to the grid at the same bus to achieve high performance. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) used for DC-DC chopper to control in power transfer between the grid and SMES coil. The FLC is designed so that the SMES can absorb/deliver active power from/to the distribution system. On the other hand, reactive power can be delivered/absorbed to/from the distribution system according to the voltage difference between the SMES voltage and DC link voltage. Two inputs were applied to the FLC; bus voltage and SMES current variations. This technique of two inputs was proved to enhance the control performance. Detailed simulation is carried out using Matlab/Simulink and Simpowersystem package. View full abstract»

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    A self-tuning PID control for a wind energy conversion system based on the Lyapunov approach

    Sedighizadeh, M. ; Rezazadeh, A. ; Khatibi, M.
    Universities Power Engineering Conference, 2008. UPEC 2008. 43rd International

    DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2008.4651560
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Nonlinear characteristics of wind turbines and electric generators necessitate that grid connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS) use nonlinear controls. In this paper, we will propose a self-tuning PID control based on Lyapunov approach for WECS control. This self-tuning PID control is founded on the combination of two controllers, i.e. a self-tuning PID controller, which drives the tracking error to zero with user specified dynamics, and a supervisory controller, based on crude bounds of the systempsilas nonlinearities. The supervisory controller guarantees the stability of closed-loop nonlinear PID control system. The form of the supervisory control and the adaptation law are derived from a Lyapunov analysis of stability. The results are applied to a typical WECS, presenting the ability of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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    Design of DC - DC converter for hybrid wind solar energy system

    Shagar, B.M. ; Vinod, S. ; Lakshmi, S.
    Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies (ICCEET), 2012 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICCEET.2012.6203805
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 429 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Environment friendly solutions are becoming more prominent than ever, as a result of the concern regarding the state of our deteriorating planet. This project presents a new system configuration of the front-end converter stage for a hybrid wind/photovoltaic energy system. The aim of this project is to implement the converter and inverter for the wind and solar hybrid system. For the hybrid system, extracting as much energy from the wind and solar as possible, and feeding the load with high quality electricity are the two main targets. This strategy makes the hybrid DG system work properly, when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution the system, and it stays connected to the main grid. Boosting the DC voltage to a sufficient level using the converter, and obtaining pure AC voltage from the inverter, are the keys to realize the above targets. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load separately or simultaneously, depending on the availability of the energy sources. The inherent nature of this cuk-SEPIC fused converter is that additional input filters are not necessary to filter out high frequency harmonics. This project describes the closed loop mechanism of the cuk and SEPIC converter, and the simulated results are presented. View full abstract»

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    Comparative evaluation of reactive power compensation methods for a stand-alone wind energy conversion system

    Elnashar, M. ; Kazerani, M. ; El Shatshat, R. ; Salama, M.M.A.
    Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PESC.2008.4592679
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 4539 - 4544
    Cited by:  Papers (5)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper provides a comparative performance evaluation of four different reactive power compensation approaches for a stand-alone wind energy conversion system (WECS), composed of a wind turbine and a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG), and feeding a constant balanced 3-phase inductive load. The reactive power compensation schemes investigated are: fixed-capacitor bank, switched-capacitor bank, static Var compensator (SVC), and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The simulation results obtained from MATLAB/SIMULINK prove the superiority of SVC and STATCOM over the other two schemes in voltage regulation and ensuring a constant voltage profile. A detailed comparison between the performances of SVC and STATCOM is also presented. View full abstract»

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    Aeolian vibrations: wind energy input evaluated from measurements on an energized transmission line

    Kraus, M. ; Hagedorn, P.
    Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/61.85875
    Publication Year: 1991 , Page(s): 1264 - 1270
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A brief review is given of the energy balance method used in the computation of the amplitudes of aeolian vibrations in conductors of overhead transmission lines. It is pointed out that the wind power input obtained from wind tunnel experiments should be verified for an actual line. Field tests carried out in a completely automated test station are described. From these measurements the wind power input in an actual transmission line is estimated. A comparison with results from wind tunnel data is carried out, corroborating the method now being used for the calculation of aeolian vibrations in transmission lines. In addition, the field tests showed that the wind power input strongly depends on the turbulence level and the component of the wind velocity parallel to the cable View full abstract»

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    Application of matrix converter in wind energy conversion system employing synchronous generator

    Karpagam, J. ; Mayurappriyan, P.S. ; Jerome, J.
    Information and Communication Technology in Electrical Sciences (ICTES 2007), 2007. ICTES. IET-UK International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 270 - 276
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IET Conference Publications

    Renewable energy is catching people's attention with increasing global energy consumption and noticeable environmental pollution across the globe. The increasing size of wind farms requires power system stability analysis including dynamic wind generator models. For turbines above 1 MW, doubly-fed induction machines are the most widely used concept. However, direct-drive wind generators based on converter-driven synchronous generator concepts have reached considerable market penetration. This paper presents converter driven synchronous generator models of various order that can be used for simulating transients and dynamics in a very wide time range. The matrix converter is used for conversion of variable voltage to a constant value that can be connected to a grid. View full abstract»

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    DC bus voltage build up and control in stand-alone wind energy conversion system using direct vector control of SCIM

    Hazra, S. ; Sensarma, P.S.
    Industrial Electronics, 2008. IECON 2008. 34th Annual Conference of IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2008.4758288
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2143 - 2148
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents the start up and operation of a stand-alone wind energy conversion system (WECS) using a squirrel cage induction machine (SCIM). The proposed scheme obviates the use of either excitation capacitor or batteries in DC bus. The DC bus comprising of a combination of normal electrolytic capacitor and few super capacitors, is interfaced with the SCIM through a current controlled inverter. The super capacitors having higher self-discharge time, provide initial voltage to the inverter to start the voltage build up process and the electrolytic capacitor filters out the ripple. Direct field oriented control (DFOC) of induction generator (IG) is performed to have good dynamic response and an adaptive controller is designed to control the DC bus voltage at a constant value irrespective of the variation in wind speed and electrical load. Rotor flux is maintained constant up to the base speed of the machine, which allows the terminal voltage to increase with wind speed and hence increases the power extraction at higher wind speed. The overall system modeling and the analytical control design is presented. Predictions made from analysis are completely validated through simulation using realistic converter model. View full abstract»

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    The impact of trading wind power in both energy and regulation reserve market on system operation

    Dawei He ; Jiahui Guo ; Weixuan Lin
    North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 2012

    DOI: 10.1109/NAPS.2012.6336399
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With the significant growth of the installed capacity of wind power, the variability of wind energy production puts greater stress on the power system operation. In this situation, more rapid regulation reserve is required, which escalates the scarcity of balancing service. A combined energy and regulation reserve market model is proposed in previous work by introducing wind energy into reserve market, but the previous work mainly concentrates on the bidding strategy and its relative revenue on the side on wind producer. This paper focuses on evaluating the new bidding strategy on the side of system operation by simulating a day-ahead unit commitment problem, and it is derived that in this new market mechanism, more secure system operation can be achieved with lower dispatch cost, through comparing the scheduling results under different bidding strategies. View full abstract»

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    Energy Storage and Management in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    Abbey, C. ; Joos, G.
    Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2006. EPE-PEMC 2006. 12th International

    DOI: 10.1109/EPEPEMC.2006.4778709
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2051 - 2056
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper considers the role that energy storage may play in the evolution of wind generator technologies, and how it is managed in order to mitigate impacts related to power system operations. The management of the energy storage device is discussed along with other potential options for limiting the output power fluctuations. The concepts are demonstrated using one of the most prominent wind turbine generator technologies, together with a two level energy storage system View full abstract»

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    A fuzzy-logic based control strategy for maximum efficiency of a Wind Energy Conversion System

    Mesemanolis, A. ; Mademlis, C. ; Kioskeridis, I.
    Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDAM.2012.6264586
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 7 - 12

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a control method for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) utilizing a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator (SCIG) is presented. Aims of the control are both maximum wind power harvesting and minimization of the SCIG power loss, thus achieving maximum power production on any wind speed. The SCIG is connected to the utility grid through two back-to-back converters. The first converter uses Field Oriented Control to regulate the speed and the excitation of the SCIG. The proposed control system uses two Fuzzy-Logic Controllers that regulate the speed and excitation of the SCIG, implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and Loss Minimization by regulating the speed of the generator and the excitation respectively. Thus, maximum power is extracted by the wind and additionally, power output is increased by reducing the core loss of the generator. In order to improve the slow response time of the flux-linkage to the d-axis current an additional control loop has been introduced that improves the response time of the flux-linkage. Several experimental results are displayed that validate the operational improvements of the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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    DC-voltage regulation of a five levels neutral point clamped cascaded converter for wind energy conversion system

    Merahi, F. ; Mekhilef, S. ; Berkouk, E.M.
    Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International

    DOI: 10.1109/IPEC.2014.6869640
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 560 - 566

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Multilevel converters are widely recognized as a suitable solution for directly interfacing different types of power sources and energy storage systems to the medium voltage grids, due to their ability in high-voltage and high-power applications. The DC-voltage regulation of a five-level neutral-point clamped (NPC) in closed loop is presented. It consists to regulate the average value of the DC-voltage by using one loop instead of four loops. The modeling and the control of the different components of the wind energy conversion system are presented. The wind turbine is controlled using the maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT) based on the wind speed estimation. The vector control of active and reactive power is used to control the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) through the rotor. The dynamic behavior of the global system is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink interface programming. The results are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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    Comparison of Energy Yield of Small Wind Turbines in Low Wind Speed Areas

    Ani, S.O. ; Polinder, H. ; Ferreira, J.A.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 4 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2012.2197426
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 42 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The objective of this paper is to compare the energy yield and generated electricity cost of several commercially available small wind turbines under low wind speed condition. Many small wind turbines were not able to generate the amount of electricity promised by the manufacturers. The predicted annual energy yield simulated using manufacturers' power curve were sometimes higher than actual measured values by up to a factor of two. Furthermore, above a rotor size of 3 m, large diameter turbines performed better, having both low generated electricity cost ( € /kWh) and high annual energy yield per swept area (kWh/m 2). View full abstract»

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    Novel battery / supercapacitor hybrid energy storage control strategy for battery life extension in isolated wind energy conversion systems

    Gee, A.M. ; Dunn, R.W.
    Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 2010 45th International

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In most autonomous off-grid wind energy systems it is necessary to store energy at times when there is an excess and release it at times when there is a deficit. Typically, for small off grid applications such as rural electrification, this is achieved using a conventional battery and in many cases a VRLA (valve regulated lead acid) battery. Replacement costs factor significantly into the life-cycle costs of battery systems and one of the shortcomings of the conventional battery is its relatively short cycle life. This paper proposes a novel control methodology by which a supercapacitor / battery hybridised energy storage system can be implemented to yield a benefit in terms of reduction in quantifiable aging factors that lead to the reduction in battery life cycle. View full abstract»

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    Wind energy and environmental protection: Using GIS to evaluate the compatibility of Croatian strategies

    Medimorec, D. ; Knezevic, S. ; Vorkapic, V. ; Skrlec, D.
    Energy Market (EEM), 2011 8th International Conference on the European

    DOI: 10.1109/EEM.2011.5953113
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 764 - 772

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The objective of this paper is to show a methodology that could be applied in the analysis of the possibility of realization of wind projects in Croatia with regard to Croatian National Ecological Network (CRO NEN) sites and protected sites. The analysis will provide a base model for initial evaluation of the compatibility of current Croatian wind energy and environmental protection objectives. The model could then later be expanded to include some additional variables or be adapted for other technologies, such as solar. View full abstract»

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    Impact of Wind-Based Distributed Generation on Electric Energy in Distribution Systems Embedded With Electric Vehicles

    Abdelsamad, S. ; Morsi, W. ; Sidhu, T.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: PP , Issue: 99
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2014.2356551
    Publication Year: 2014 , Article#: 2356551

    IEEE Early Access Articles

    In this paper, the synergy between wind-based distributed generation (DG) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is studied. Monte Carlo is used to address the uncertainties associated with wind speed variations and charging of PEVs hence simulating their impact at the distribution system (DS) level considering different DG penetration (up to 35%) and different PEV penetration (up to 50%). The excess in active/reactive power, energy exceeding normal (EEN), unserved energy (UE), and energy losses are investigated in this study. Forty-eight penetration scenarios involving DGs and PEVs are studied in this work and simulated in the IEEE 123-bus radial power distribution test system after modeling its secondary circuit in OpenDSS. The results of the simulation show that 30% wind-based DG penetration may be adequate to supply the active energy needed to charge PEVs. However, this might result in a reverse reactive power flow back to the substation. View full abstract»

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    Control of double-output induction machine for variable speed wind energy conversion system using dynamic vector approach

    Chitti Babu, B. ; Mohanty, K.B. ; Poongothai, C.
    TENCON 2008 - 2008 IEEE Region 10 Conference

    DOI: 10.1109/TENCON.2008.4766517
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper modeling and control of double-output induction machine for wind energy conversion system is investigated. An attempt to develop a vectorized dynamic model of induction machine which can be simulated as both motoring and generating mode when testing control strategies. Through the model developed in this paper can be used for simulating all types of induction generator configurations. The choice of synchronous rotating reference frame makes it particularly favorable for the simulation of double-output configuration in transient conditions. A Complete simulation model is developed for the control of the active and reactive power of the double-output induction generator during wind variations. View full abstract»

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    Wind energy conversion system using PMSG controlled by B-spline network

    Mejia, Omar Aguilar ; Olvera, Ruben Tapia ; Solorio, Jose M.Sausedo
    T&D Conference and Exposition, 2014 IEEE PES

    DOI: 10.1109/TDC.2014.6863435
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The wind energy boom in the world began in 1980's. This paper presents the modeling and control of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The control scheme uses a B-spline artificial neural network for tuning controllers when the system is subjected to disturbances. The currents from VSI's are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal dq frame using an adaptive PI control. The B-spline neural network must be able to enhance the system performance and the online parameters updated can be possible. This paper proposes the use a linear control PI to regulate the DC link voltage. Simulation results show the feasibility and robustness of the proposed control schemes for PMSG based wind turbines. Comprehensive models of wind speed, wind turbine, PMSG and power electronic converters along with their control schemes are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. View full abstract»

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    Local compensation of wind energy conversion system

    Singer, A. ; Hofmann, W.
    Power Electronics and Applications, 2005 European Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2005.219512
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 9 pp. - P.9
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As the demand for renewable energy increases, the role that offshore wind power plants play in generation will become more and more crucial. Permanent magnet salient pole synchronous machines connected to DC network provide an alternative to offshore wind power plants. Fixed excitation is the main drawback. External compensation is an attractive solution to this problem. This paper provides a comparison between different compensation methods applied to permanent magnet salient pole synchronous generator (PSG) at different excitation levels i.e. under-and over-excited. An analytical derivation of the increase in the electrical power resulting from different types of compensation is deduced. The calculation of the losses of the inverter and efficiency accompanied with each type of compensation are presented View full abstract»

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    A policy dimension required for technology roadmapping: Learning from the development of emerging wind energy industry in China

    Yuan Zhou ; Guannan Xu ; Minshall, T. ; Jun Su ; Fang Zhang ; Qiang Zhi
    Technology Management in the Energy Smart World (PICMET), 2011 Proceedings of PICMET '11:

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Innovation policies play an important role throughout the development process of emerging industries. However, existing policy studies view the process as a black-box, and fail to understand the policy-industry interactions through the process. This paper aims to develop an integrated technology roadmapping tool, in order to facilitate the better understanding of policy heterogeneity at the different stages of new energy industries in China. Through the case study of Chinese wind energy equipment manufacturing industry, this paper elaborates the dynamics between policy and the growth process of the industry. Further, this paper generalizes some Chinese specifics for the policy-industry interactions. As a practical output, this study proposes a policy-technology roadmapping framework that maps policy-market-product-technology interactions in response to the requirement for analyzing and planning the development of new industries in emerging economies (e.g. China). This paper will be of interest to policy makers, strategists, investors, and industrial experts. View full abstract»

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    A proposal for implementation of wind energy harvesting system in trains

    Sindhuja, B.
    Control, Instrumentation, Energy and Communication (CIEC), 2014 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CIEC.2014.6959180
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 696 - 702

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Energy resources in our modern fast paced technoworld is fast depleting. Hence a renewable energy source is much required at the moment. Thus researching new and innovative systems in renewable energy sector is an indispensable prerequisite. This paper attempts to propose a model for generating clean energy by harnessing the power of wind in moving trains. The scope of this paper concentrates on a new approach to harvest wind power by installing a conical shaped ducted turbines on the roof of the trains which are coupled to a generating unit. Another auxiliary system is also installed that sucks in air through a tunnel like shroud and compresses it. The compressed air is stored in pressure conduits or an agitation tank that maintains the turbine speed at the desirable rate during fluctuations in train speed or wind potential at the inlet turbine. To complement this approach, CFD simulated results are used to investigate the design profile of the proposed model. The conclusion thus obtained proves the efficiency of the system to harness large scale power in a sustainable manner. View full abstract»

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    Micro Wind Power Generator With Battery Energy Storage for Critical Load

    Mohod, S.W. ; Aware, M.V.
    Systems Journal, IEEE

    Volume: 6 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2011.2163015
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 118 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    In the micro-grid network, it is especially difficult to support the critical load without uninterrupted power supply. The proposed micro-wind energy conversion system with battery energy storage is used to exchange the controllable real and reactive power in the grid and to maintain the power quality norms as per International Electro-Technical Commission IEC-61400-21 at the point of common coupling. The generated micro-wind power can be extracted under varying wind speed and can be stored in the batteries at low power demand hours. In this scheme, inverter control is executed with hysteresis current control mode to achieve the faster dynamic switchover for the support of critical load. The combination of battery storage with micro-wind energy generation system (μ WEGS), which will synthesize the output waveform by injecting or absorbing reactive power and enable the real power flow required by the load. The system reduces the burden on the conventional source and utilizes μ WEGS and battery storage power under critical load constraints. The system provides rapid response to support the critical loads. The scheme can also be operated as a stand-alone system in case of grid failure like a uninterrupted power supply. The system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results are presented. View full abstract»

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    Study on control of ladder-type storing and releasing energy for off-grid wind turbine

    Caifeng Wen ; Jianwen Wang ; Yuanjun Dai
    Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), 2010 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/MACE.2010.5535940
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 5125 - 5127

    IEEE Conference Publications

    As far as the currently used lead-acid battery has poor abilities of self-resistance to overcharge and over-discharge, it is unsuitable for a dedicated storage device of wind turbine. This paper proposed a control strategy of storing and releasing energy about off-grid wind turbine by analyzing and studying the ideal characteristic curve of charging voltage and current of lead-acid battery. The strategy adopts the whole control-type turn-off thyristor (GTO) to constitute switch circuit for controlling battery charging voltage and current size, and multi-stage charging signal generator controls switch circuit through monitoring battery reserves, thus completing the battery charge current ladder-type regulating, making it close to the ideal characteristic curve, and releasing the excess wind energy by diode load slowly. This strategy achieved the integration functions of charging control and load consumption. View full abstract»

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    On Optimizing the Aerodynamic Load Acting on the Turbine Shaft of PMSG-Based Direct-Drive Wind Energy Conversion System

    Jiawei Chen ; Jie Chen ; Chunying Gong
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 61 , Issue: 8
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2013.2284148
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 4022 - 4031

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The blade's rotational sampling to the spatial distributed wind velocities will induce 3P oscillating aerodynamic torque during the wind energy generation process. This causes the turbine drive train bare high aerodynamic load because the generator is driven by this aerodynamic torque through it. Moreover, the system's inherent resonant mode will be also induced by the aerodynamic load, causing fatal damage to the whole system. To damp the serious aerodynamic load of the permanent-magnet-synchronous-generator-based direct-drive wind energy conversion system (WECS), a new power control strategy with damping injection is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is realized by adding a compensation torque, which is proportional to the small-signal value of the generator speed, into the system torque control loop. Both the aerodynamic load and the system's inherent resonant mode could be well damped if the proposed method were adopted. Theoretic analysis is verified by experimental results performed by a 10-kW WECS established in the laboratory. View full abstract»

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    Reliability Modeling and Control Schemes of Composite Energy Storage and Wind Generation System With Adequate Transmission Upgrades

    Yi Zhang ; Songzhe Zhu ; Chowdhury, A.A.
    Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 2 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2011.2160663
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 520 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The intermittency of wind generation and the potential need for adequate transmission expansion are the major concerns in wind generation integration to power system. One solution being considered is to build on-site energy storage with the wind farms. The idea of building such a composite system is not only to minimize the real-time variation of the composite system output, but also to optimize the transmission upgrades needed for delivery of the wind generation. A novel probabilistic reliability assessment method is proposed in this paper for determining the adequate size of on-site energy storage and the transmission upgrades needed in connecting wind generation with the power system. The practical applications of the proposed model are illustrated using the IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS). View full abstract»

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    Wind Power Forecasting in a Residential Location as Part of the Energy Box Management Decision Tool

    Ioakimidis, C.S. ; Oliveira, L.J. ; Genikomsakis, K.N.
    Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 10 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TII.2014.2334056
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2103 - 2111

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A number of location characteristics, such as buildings, mountains, and trees, are likely to influence the wind flow that reaches a microwind turbine located at a residential area, and as a consequence they may affect the actual wind speed that is potentially utilized by the turbine. In this context, simple regional predictions for the wind energy from the nearest location available can easily lead to unacceptable modeling errors. There is thus a need to develop a framework for predicting the values of the wind speed at the desired location. This work addresses the aforementioned issue by employing a multilayer feed-forward back-propagation neural network for classification that utilizes the global forecast system (GFS) predictions on wind speed and direction to identify patterns of the wind behavior at the location considered in order to obtain a stochastic distribution of the daily wind speed. The proposed approach aims to support the implementation of an enhanced energy box (EB) management decision tool, while its feasibility is demonstrated through a case example for a region in the south of Portugal. View full abstract»

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    Robust control of variable-speed adjustable-pitch wind energy conversion system based on hamiltonian energy theory

    Wang Bing ; Wang Ping ; Xingying Chen ; Xiaoling Yuan
    Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, 2009. SUPERGEN '09. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SUPERGEN.2009.5348071
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Based on Hamiltonian energy theory, this paper proposes a pitch angle and excitation torque controller for the wind energy conversion systems (WECS), such that the closed-loop system can achieve its stability. Furthermore, in the presence of disturbances, the closed-loop system is finite-gain L2 stable by the Hamiltonian controller. The Hamiltonian energy approach provides us a physical insight and gives a new way to the controller design. The simulations are illustrated to show that the proposed method is effective. View full abstract»

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    A novel algorithm for fast and efficient maximum power point tracking of wind energy conversion systems

    Raza, K.S.M. ; Goto, Hiroki ; Hai-Jiao Guo ; Ichinokura, O.
    Electrical Machines, 2008. ICEM 2008. 18th International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICELMACH.2008.4800030
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This research paper proposes a novel solution to the problems that exists in the normal hill climb searching (HCS) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The solution presented not only solves the tracking speed vs. efficiency tradeoff problem of HCS but also makes sure that the changing wind conditions shouldn't lead HCS in the wrong direction. The experimental results obtained confirm that the proposed algorithm is remarkably faster and efficient than the normal one. View full abstract»

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    A novel Wind Energy Conversion System with power quality improvement features

    Shyam, B. ; Raj, A.B. ; Thomas, P.C.
    Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - India (ISGT India), 2011 IEEE PES

    DOI: 10.1109/ISET-India.2011.6145360
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 84 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper focuses on design and simulation of a novel small scale Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) based on Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs) and power electronic converters. Electric power is generated using a PMG whose output is having variable magnitude and variable frequency due to non-uniform wind velocity. In the proposed system output of PMG is converted to constant DC using a full bridge rectifier and closed loop boost converter. This constant DC output is converted to AC using Three Bridge Four Wire (TBFW) interfacing inverter. One of the most common problems when connecting small renewable energy systems to the electric grid concerns the interface unit between the power sources and the grid, as it can inject harmonic components that may deteriorate the power quality. The TBFW inverter can perform as a conventional inverter as well as an active power filter by means of hysteresis current controller. The inverter can thus be utilized as a power converter injecting power generated from renewable energy source to the grid and as a shunt active power filter to compensate for power quality disturbances and load reactive power demand. Validation of the proposed system is verified through MATLAB/Simulink simulation. View full abstract»

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    Effects of WECS settings and PMSG parameters in the performance of a small wind energy generator

    Carrillo, C. ; Diaz-Dorado, E. ; Silva-Ucha, M. ; Perez-Sabín, F.
    Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/SPEEDAM.2010.5542223
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 766 - 771

    IEEE Conference Publications

    During recent years the market for small wind turbine generators (SWTG) has been continuously growing. In this context, the supply of components for this product has also been increasing. The main components of SWTG are the rotor, the generator and the wind energy conversion system (WECS), typically formed by a rectifier plus an inverter. The settings of WECS affect the SWTG behaviour, especially the parameters related with minimum and maximum voltages and the way in which the inverter power curve is established. In this paper, a method to calculate the inverter power curve of a STWG is presented, the impact of different types of curves is also evaluated. View full abstract»

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    Novel STATCOM Controller for Reactive Power Compensation in Distribution Networks with Dispersed Renewable Wind Energy

    Sharaf, A.M. ; Weihua Wang ; Altas, I.H.
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2007. CCECE 2007. Canadian Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CCECE.2007.394
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1582 - 1585
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a novel multi-loop dynamic error driven controller based on the decoupled (d-q) voltage and current tracking loops for modulating the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) used in distribution networks with dispersed renewable wind energy generation. The multi loop regulator adjusts the pulse switching pattern of the voltage-sourced converter (VSC) to ensure effective reactive power compensation and harmonic reduction. The effectiveness of the controller is fully validated under different operating conditions, like load switching and wind velocity excursions. View full abstract»

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    Performance of Wind Energy Conversion System Using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Singh, B. ; Aggarwal, S.K. ; Kandpal, T.C.
    Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), 2010 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/IAS.2010.5614738
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper deals with the analysis, modeling, and control of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) driven by the wind turbine. A control technique is presented for extracting the maximum power from the wind turbine. The wind energy conversion system (WECS) is equipped with a DFIG and two back-to-back connected voltage source converters (VSCs) in the rotor circuit. The proposed control technique is based on using the grid-side converter to regulate the dc link voltage constant. The task of the rotor side converter is to track the maximum power point for the wind turbine and to maintain unity power factor at stator terminals. The description for the proposed system is presented with the detailed dynamic modeling equations. Simulation results for different operating conditions are demonstrated to reveal the performance of the proposed technique. Corresponding simulation results under unity power factor operating conditions are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control technique. Finally, the energy captured by two generators, a DFIG and a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) is presented for a place Jakhau (Gujarat) in India, which is estimated on the basis of the wind speed variation over a day. View full abstract»

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    Optimal Efficiency Control Strategy in Wind Energy Conversion System With Induction Generator

    Mesemanolis, A. ; Mademlis, C. ; Kioskeridis, I.
    Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, IEEE Journal of

    Volume: 1 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2013.2284562
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 238 - 246

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents an optimal efficiency control strategy for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) with squirrel cage induction generators (SCIGs). The developed control scheme provides an optimal efficiency of the induction generator and maximum power extraction from the wind turbine. Thus, maximum power harvesting from the whole WECS is achieved and additionally expansion of the exploitable wind speed region toward the lower speed range is accomplished. A minimum electric loss (MEL) controller is introduced to minimize the generator electric loss and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller is used to maximize the wind turbine output power. Common input to the two optimal controllers is only the generator speed, while the measurement of the wind speed is not required. The controllers determine the optimal d- and q-axis stator current components of the SCIG through optimal conditions and, therefore, fast dynamic response of the WECS is accomplished. An experimental procedure is proposed to determine the MEL and MPPT controller parameters. Therefore, neither the knowledge of SCIG loss model, nor the characteristic curves of the wind turbine are required. The effectiveness and the operational improvements of the suggested optimal control scheme have been verified experimentally. View full abstract»

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    Airborne Wind Energy Based on Dual Airfoils

    Zanon, M. ; Gros, S. ; Andersson, J. ; Diehl, M.
    Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 21 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/TCST.2013.2257781
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1215 - 1222

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The airborne wind energy (AWE) paradigm proposes to generate energy by flying a tethered airfoil across the wind flow at a high velocity. Although AWE enables flight in higher altitude and stronger wind layers, the extra drag generated by the tether motion imposes a significant limit to the overall system efficiency. To address this issue, two airfoils with a shared tether can reduce overall system drag. Although this technique may improve the efficiency of AWE systems, such improvement can only be achieved through properly balancing the system trajectories and parameters. This brief tackles that problem using optimal control. A generic procedure for modeling multiple-airfoil systems with equations of minimal complexity is proposed. A parametric study shows that at small and medium scales, dual-airfoil systems are significantly more efficient than single-airfoil systems, but they are less advantageous at very large scales. View full abstract»

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    Energy Yield and Cost Analysis of Small Scale Wind Turbines

    Stannard, N.J. ; Bumby, J.R.
    Universities Power Engineering Conference, 2006. UPEC '06. Proceedings of the 41st International

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2006.367725
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 108 - 112

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper seeks to explore the attractiveness of small-scale wind turbines in the current economic climate. In order to do this, three pieces of information must be known: (1) the cost of the system; (2) the annual energy yield of the system; (3) the value of that energy yield. An Internet based search was conducted to establish current market prices for (1) and (3). The annual energy yield is more difficult to determine, and in this paper a Weibull probability distribution of wind speed, combined with the turbine's power characteristic, has been used to estimate it. This analysis has been carried out on a number of small-scale turbines that are currently on the market and the results have been compared to a family of generic turbines with ideal performance characteristics to assess whether the manufactures' performance claims are accurate. The income generated and the level of CO2 abatement has also been calculated. It was found that a 2.5-3 kW turbine could supply all the energy needs of an average household, however the current cost of the system is expensive compared to the cost of buying the energy from the grid, leading to a payback period of similar length to the design life of the turbine View full abstract»

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    Environmental footprint analysis of on-shore and off-shore wind energy technologies

    Noori, M. ; Kucukvar, M. ; Tatari, O.
    Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on

    DOI: 10.1109/ISSST.2012.6403808
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Wind energy technologies have gained a tremendous interest worldwide to mitigate the environmental impacts related to power generation. In this study, we assess on-shore and off-shore by tracing all of the economy-wide supply chain requirements of wind power plants. The wind turbines consist of two onshore (V80-2.0 MW and V90-3.0 MW) and two offshore (V80-2.0 MW and V90-3.0 MW) turbines, all manufactured by the Vestas Wind Systems A/S. View full abstract»

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    Using PFC for harmonic mitigation in wind turbine energy conversion systems

    dos Reis, F.S. ; Tan, K. ; Islam, S.
    Industrial Electronics Society, 2004. IECON 2004. 30th Annual Conference of IEEE

    Volume: 3
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2004.1432307
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 3100 - 3105 Vol. 3
    Cited by:  Papers (10)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) wind energy conversion system (WECS) using variable speed operation is being used more frequently in wind turbine application. Variable speed systems have several advantages over the traditional method of operating wind turbines, such as the reduction of mechanical stress and an increase in energy capture. To allow the variable speed operation of the PMSG WECS a conventional three-phase bridge rectifier (BR) with a bulky capacitor associated with voltage source current controlled inverter (VS-CCI) is used. This simple scheme introduces a high intensity low frequency current harmonic content into the PMSG and consequently increases the total loses in it. Subsequently, decreases the power capability of the system. In this paper a simulation study using a single-switch three-phase boost rectifier (PFC) applied to harmonic mitigation in this systems is presented. View full abstract»

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    Reactive Power Control of Current Source Converter based Wind Energy System

    Yongqiang Lang ; Bin Wu ; Zargari, N.
    Electrical Power Conference, 2007. EPC 2007. IEEE Canada

    DOI: 10.1109/EPC.2007.4520379
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 479 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, a PWM current source converter is proposed for high-power wind energy system using a Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The current source converter normally requires filter capacitors on its ac side, which may affect power factor of the system. A decoupled active/reactive power control algorithm is proposed for the grid-side power factor adjustment. The dc current reference is generated in a way to meet the requirements from both sides. In addition, Field Oriented Control theory is used for the wind generator control. Experiments on a small-scale laboratory have been carried out to verify the analysis and experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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    Dynamical operational behavior of the power drain of wind energy converters with PMSM considering different current control methods

    Sourkounis, C. ; Broy, A.
    Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 2011 7th International Conference-Workshop

    DOI: 10.1109/CPE.2011.5942233
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 208 - 213
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    With increasing nominal wind park power, interest in the operating behavior of the plants and the wind park is developing. Main criteria for the quality of the operating behavior are based on mains pollution (e.g. harmonics) and the power fluctuation through variations of the wind speed. The dynamic and stationary operating behavior of wind energy converters (WEC) are defined by the drive train structure and the control algorithm. The essence of this paper is the investigation on the operating behaviors of different WECs generator systems in relation to their influence on the mechanical drive train's operating performance. Because of practical experiences so far, only a few concepts are suitable for the design of the electrical part. Therefore, in this paper, a theoretical and simulation based comparison will be carried out. Five different concepts (some state-of-the-art and some new creations especially for off-shore use) therefore, are compared in relation to necessary requirements. View full abstract»

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    Improved dynamic performance of wind energy conversion system by UPFC

    Ferdosian, M. ; Abdi, H. ; Bazaei, A.
    Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICIT.2013.6505730
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 545 - 550
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    There is a continuously growing demand for wind power generation capacity. This situation forces the revision of the grid codes requirements, to remain connected during grid faults, i.e., to ride through the faults, and contribute to system stability during fault condition. In a typical fault condition, the voltage at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) drops below 80% immediately and the rotor speed of induction generators becomes unstable. In this paper, Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is used to improve the low voltage ride- through (LVRT) of wind energy conversion system (WECS) and to damp the rotor speed oscillations of induction generator under fault conditions. By controlling the UPFC as a virtual inductor, we aims to increase the voltage at the terminals of the wind energy conversion system (WECS) and thereby mitigate the destabilizing electrical torque and power during the fault. The WECS is considered as a fixed-speed system, equipped with a squirrel-cage induction generator. The simulation results show that UPFC can improve the LVRT and rotor stability of the WECS. View full abstract»

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    Flexible Arrangement of Static Converters for Grid-Connected Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Bovolini Grigoletto, F. ; Pinheiro, H.
    Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 61 , Issue: 9
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2013.2290752
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 4707 - 4721

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents a new flexible arrangement of static converters for grid-connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed arrangement uses three-phase voltage-fed back-to-back mass-produced power converter modules with reconfiguration switches. The main features of the proposed flexible arrangement are as follows: 1) expanded reactive power capability limits; 2) high efficiency, mainly under low wind conditions where the active power is reduced; and 3) low current harmonic content. In addition, a detailed description of the operating modes, as well as of the grid, generator, and circulating current controller design, are given. Finally, experimental results support the theoretical development, and demonstrate the good performance and flexibility of the proposed arrangement. View full abstract»

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    Technical and economical analysis of energy storage technologies used for wind energy storage

    Kurt, G.
    Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (ELECO), 2010 National Conference on

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 17 - 21

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The main objective of this study is to present energy storage technologies, their technical and economic characteristics, their potential application, that are the best suited to mitigate wind variability, to help balancing generation and consumption and to support wind energy integration within network. View full abstract»

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    Reliability and economic assessment of generating systems containing wind energy sources

    Allan, R.N. ; Corredor Avella, P.
    Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings C

    Volume: 132 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1049/ip-c.1985.0002
    Publication Year: 1985
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    There is much interest in using renewable energy sources, such as wind, wave and solar, to generate electrical energy. Unfortunately, such energy sources are intermittent, and, therefore, conventional sources must still be available to meet the demand during quiescent periods. Hence, the reliability and economic assessment of these novel sources cannot be made using standard capacity-replacement-based methods; instead, energyreplacement methods are required. The paper extends the loss-of-energy-expectation method to evaluate the generation reliability including novel energy sources. These results are then used to calculate the economic benefits of such sources. The approach is illustrated using the IEEE reliability test system. Although the paper concentrates on wind energy sources, the technique and approach are applicable to a generation system containing any type of intermittent energy source. View full abstract»

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    Power electronics in wind energy conversion systems — A survey across the globe

    Nallavan, G. ; Dhanasekaran, R. ; Vasudevan, M.
    Electronics Computer Technology (ICECT), 2011 3rd International Conference on

    Volume: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/ICECTECH.2011.5941635
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 416 - 419
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper aims to give a basic and strong idea of wind energy conversion system with the advanced power electronics systems for the researchers and students. In future, the whole world will look for renewable and alternative energy sources with modern control strategies. Sophisticated and modern high rated wind turbines are possible only with the help of power electronics. This paper really focused to give this idea and current trend in the leading wind industries. View full abstract»

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    Evaluation of loss of load probability and expected energy generation in multi-area interconnected systems with wind generating units

    Khan, K.R. ; Abou-Arkoub, A.A. ; Newtown, M.J.
    Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), 2013 IEEE International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/SEGE.2013.6707907
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 8

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the loss of load probability (LOLP) and expected energy generation (EEG) of multi area interconnected systems with wind generators, as well as conventional fossil fuel based generating units. Wind generators are practical alternatives to meet the huge electrical energy demand with minimum cost, particularly in those areas where the wind profiles are suitable. Extending the previously reported segmentation method, the proposed model is also capable of tracking the energy export incorporating the multi-state probability model for wind generator which output varies with time and season. View full abstract»

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    Influence of the electrical steel grade on the performance of the direct-drive permanent magnet machine for wind energy generation

    Kowal, D. ; Dupré, L. ; Sergeant, P. ; Vandenbossche, L. ; De Wulf, M.
    Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC), 2010 14th Biennial IEEE Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CEFC.2010.5481605
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The performance of a variable speed, direct-drive synchronous generator wind turbine concept is compared for two grades of electric steel applied for the generator stator core lamination. A ring type, radial flux permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is modelled. For a fixed mechanical power input, the geometry of the PMSG is optimized for each material to maximize the annual energy yield. The energy yield is calculated based on the power curve of the generator and the probability density function of the wind speed. This function is approximated by the Weibull distribution for a site with average wind speed of 7 m/s. The annual efficiency differs more than 2% between the two optimized generators, which use different grades of material. View full abstract»

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    Energy-based controller for machine-side converter of doubly-fed wind generator

    Huihui Song ; Yanbin Qu
    Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA), 2010 8th World Congress on

    DOI: 10.1109/WCICA.2010.5554810
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1402 - 1407
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A novel energy-based control strategy to determine the switch functions of the machine-side conveter (MSC) in a doubly-fed wind generator is proposed in this paper. From the energy shaping perspective, a port-controlled hamiltonian (PCH) description for the wind energy conversion system (WECS) is obtained. Based on the description and the enegy- matching equation, the proposed switch functions enable us to realize maximum power extraction by tracking equilibrium point in the power optimization stage. This approach possesses the advantages of stable tracking performance and rapid convergence rate. Simulation results via Matlab/Simulink for 2MW WECS with a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) confirmed its effectiveness. View full abstract»

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    Optimizing the Annual Energy Production of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbines

    Aguglia, D. ; Wamkeue, R. ; Viarouge, P. ; Cros, J.
    Electrical Power Conference, 2007. EPC 2007. IEEE Canada

    DOI: 10.1109/EPC.2007.4520338
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 248 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a detailed methodology for the estimation and optimization of the annualized performances of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG). The method takes into account the losses and ratings of different system components : gearbox, DFIG, and power converters. The influence of the DC-bus voltage limit of the power converters on the annual energy yield reduction is analyzed and quantified. The influence of the blade pitch angle control strategy is also discussed and the compromises between the characteristics of the different system components are investigated. The methodology is applied to 2MW wind power plant. View full abstract»

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    Gone with the wind: innovative hydrogen/fuel cell electric vehicle infrastructure based on wind energy sources

    von Jouanne, A. ; Husain, I. ; Wallace, A. ; Yokochi, A.
    Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

    Volume: 11 , Issue: 4
    DOI: 10.1109/MIA.2005.1458270
    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 12 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    The development of sustainable, clean, and efficient transportation systems is a critical factor for the improvement of overall air quality and the reduction of the nation's dependence on diminishing domestic resources and imported fuels. This article presents the development issues for an innovative fuel cell electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure and bidirectional grid connection, derived from renewable and clean energy sources, with a focus on wind energy. The effective use of wind power to drive water electrolysis plants to produce hydrogen for advanced fuel-cell EV is also illustrated in this paper. View full abstract»

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    Design and implementation of digital power converter for wind energy conversion system

    Chih-Chiang Hua ; Wei-Tze Chen ; Yi-Hsiung Fang
    Future Energy Electronics Conference (IFEEC), 2013 1st International

    DOI: 10.1109/IFEEC.2013.6687500
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 181 - 186

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of power converters for wind energy conversion system. The proposed system consists of a wind generator, a boost converter, and a full-bridge inverter. The wind generator is the main power source of the system, and a digital signal processor (TMS320F2812A) is used to be the system controller. The system controls the duty cycle of the boost converter to achieve the maximum power tracking. Finally, a unipolar switching full-bridge inverter is used to provide a stable output voltage. The experimental and simulation results on a 200-W wind generator are provided to verify the performance of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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    Wind energy conversion based on seven-level cascaded H-bridge inverter using LabVIEW FPGA

    Samuel, P. ; Chandrashekhar, N. ; Gupta, R.
    Power, Control and Embedded Systems (ICPCES), 2010 International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPCES.2010.5698653
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, an isolated wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on the cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) topology employing a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) driven by a variable speed wind turbine and feeding high power single-phase local loads has been proposed. A seven-level cascaded H-bridge inverter employing phase-shifted multi-carrier pulse width modulation is implemented using LabVIEW FPGA. The output of the synchronous generator with fixed excitation, emulating a PMSG is connected to a three phase diode bridge rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then connected to the proposed topology of three H-bridges using IGBT based intelligent power modules (IPM) thus forming a single phase CHBMLI in the laboratory to obtain the experimental results. The switching pulses for the IPM are generated with phase shifted multi carrier PWM using NI LABVIEW with the help of PCI 7831R FPGA data acquisition board that in turn generates a seven-level output voltage across a single-phase load. View full abstract»

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    Resolution-Level-Controlled WM Inverter for PMG-Based Wind Energy Conversion System

    Saleh, S.A. ; Ahshan, R.
    Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 48 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2012.2182750
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 750 - 763
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents the development, implementation, and performance testing of a permanent-magnet generator (PMG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS) for grid-connected applications. The grid-connected operation is constructed using the new three-phase resolution-level-controlled wavelet-modulated inverter. The output of the wind generator is fed to a switch-mode ac-dc converter, where the dc voltage is controlled to ensure extracting power from the wind under variable wind speed conditions in order to meet the grid active and reactive power demands. The resolution-level control of the grid-side inverter is designed as a current controller for adjusting active and reactive powers delivered to the grid. The proposed WECS is implemented both in software and hardware for performance testing on a direct-drive 6-kW laboratory PMG operated with variable speed. Test results demonstrate that an accurate control of the dc voltage on the generator side ensures adjusting the generator speed to extract power at each wind speed in order to meet the demand active and reactive power delivery to the grid. Also, test results show significant abilities of the resolution-level controller to initiate fast and accurate adjustments in the active and reactive powers delivered to the grid in order to follow any changes in their demand values under variable wind speed. View full abstract»

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    Pre-feasibility study of PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM type mobile telephony base station in Central India

    Nema, P. ; Rangnekar, S. ; Nema, R.K.
    Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE), 2010 The 2nd International Conference on

    Volume: 5
    DOI: 10.1109/ICCAE.2010.5451496
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 152 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (7)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper proposes the most feasible configuration of a stand alone PV/Wind Hybrid Energy System with diesel generator as a backup for cellular mobile telephony base station site in isolated areas of Central India. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for mobile telephony base station in near future. The meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal, Central India and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for pre-feasibility study of the hybrid energy system. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate Seventy to Eighty percent fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of Carbon dioxide and other harmful gasses in environments. View full abstract»

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    Position Sensorless Control of Switched Reluctance Generator for Wind Energy Conversion

    Xulong Zhang ; Guojun Tan ; Songyan Kuai ; Qihu Wang
    Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2010 Asia-Pacific

    DOI: 10.1109/APPEEC.2010.5449249
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 5

    IEEE Conference Publications

    This paper presents a novel sensorless control system of switched reluctance generator (SRG) in order to reduce cost, simplify system structure and increase reliability. Considering nonlinear characteristics of SRG and robustness of sliding mode observer (SMO), sensorless control method of SRG based on SMO is proposed and analyzed. For wind energy conversion system (WECS), a voltage-source PWM inverter is used to make power output of SRG connect to the grid (or ac load). The SRG phase current was regulated by current chopping control method (CCC). An 18.5 kW three-phase 12/8 SRG experimental prototype was constructed and wind turbine mover was emulated using a DC motor drive. Test results using dual TMS320F2812 DSP as control core verified validity and feasibility of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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    A New Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion System

    Xia, Y. ; Ahmed, K.H. ; Williams, B.W.
    Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 26 , Issue: 12
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2162251
    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3609 - 3620
    Cited by:  Papers (19)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    A new maximum power point tracking technique for permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind energy conversion systems is proposed. The technique searches for the system optimum relationship for maximum power point tracking and then controls the system based on this relationship. The validity of the technique is theoretically analyzed, and the design procedure is presented. The primary merit of the proposed technique is that it does not require an anemometer or preknowledge of a system, but has an accurate and fast response to wind speed fluctuations. Moreover, it has the ability of online updating of time-dependant turbine or generator parameter shift. The validity and performance of the proposed technique are confirmed by MATLAB/Simulink simulations and experimentations. View full abstract»

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    Apply intelligent control strategy in wind energy conversion system

    Yang Junhua ; Wu Jie ; Yang Jinming ; Yang Ping
    Intelligent Control and Automation, 2004. WCICA 2004. Fifth World Congress on

    Volume: 6
    DOI: 10.1109/WCICA.2004.1343695
    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 5120 - 5124 Vol.6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The wind energy conversion system (WECS) was a strong nonlinear system. The wind energy parameters of wind farm possessed high stochastic, various uncertainties that weren't exactly recognized. As this kind of system had unmodel or does not have accurate modeled part, it was very difficult to be controlled effectively. The self-features and merits of intelligent control methods were extremely suitable for WECS. The main achievements and methods of fuzzy logic control, neural network control, expert system control and synthesis intelligent control used in the control of WECS stability, speed control system and maximum-power transfer were surveyed. Some certain problems to be solved were proposed simultaneously. View full abstract»

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    Influence of dc-link converter on operational performance of the power conversion train of wind energy converters with PMSM

    Sourkounis, C. ; Broy, A. ; Bingchang Ni
    Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower 2010), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on

    DOI: 10.1049/cp.2010.0890
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 7

    IET Conference Publications

    With increasing nominal wind park power, interest in the operating behavior of the plants and the wind park is developing. Main criteria for the quality of the operating behavior are based on mains pollution (e.g. harmonics) and the power fluctuation through variations of the wind speed. The dynamic and stationary operating behavior of wind energy converters (WEC) are defined by the drive train structure and the control algorithm. The essence of this paper is the investigation on the operating behaviors of different WECs generator systems in relation to their influence on the mechanical drive train's operating performance. Because of practical experiences so far, only a few concepts are suitable for the design of the electrical part. Therefore, in this paper, a theoretical and simulation based comparison will be carried out. Five different concepts (some state-of-the-art and some new creations especially for off-shore use) therefore, are compared in relation to necessary requirements. View full abstract»

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    Wind energy-an option for the UK?

    Halliday, J.A.
    Science, Measurement and Technology, IEE Proceedings A

    Volume: 140 , Issue: 1
    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 53 - 62

    IET Journals & Magazines

    The author reviews the progress made in developing modern wind turbines to generate electricity and summarises developments in the UK. The environmental benefits and disadvantages of using wind energy are discussed in detail. Among the topic covered are land use, visual intrusion, noise, interference with flora and fauna as well as an objective assessment of the pollution avoided by using wind turbines. The author also discusses the public perception of, and acceptance of, wind turbines and how proposed wind energy developments are being assessed by local planning authorities. The long-term potential of wind energy in the UK and Europe is reviewed. View full abstract»

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    Reliability evaluation of small stand-alone wind energy conversion systems using a time series simulation model

    Billinton, R. ; Bagen ; Cui, Y.
    Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings

    Volume: 150 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1049/ip-gtd:20030068
    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 96 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (3)

    IET Journals & Magazines

    A time series simulation model for the reliability evaluation of small stand-alone wind energy conversion systems (SSWECS) containing battery storages is presented. The performance of such a system is quite different from one containing conventional generating units due to the dispersed nature of the wind at the specific site location. The reliability of a SSWECS depends on various factors such as the reserve margin, the battery size and charging (discharging) characteristics, the wind speed, the wind turbine generator's failure/repair characteristics and power ratings, the system load profile and the system operating philosophy. The results and discussions presented should prove useful in planning, designing, and operating small stand-alone wind energy conversion systems for electricity supply in remote areas. View full abstract»

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    Double objectives control for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Feng Xu ; Ming Cheng ; Jianzhong Zhang ; Zheng Wang
    Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2010 International Conference on

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 493 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    It is the main objective for conventional variable-speed constant frequency wind energy conversion system (WECS) below the rated power to realize maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper presents a double objectives control scheme for WECS. Based on the frequency separation principle, the wind speed is divided into two components, a slowly varying component, named seasonal, and a rapidly varying component, named turbulence. Then the double-loop control structure is proposed, where the controller has two objectives to maximize the wind turbine energy efficiency and minimize the torque variations of turbine shaft, respectively. The simulation model is built in Matlab/Simulink surrounding and simulation results show that the proposed double objectives control scheme achieve not only high power capture efficiency but also low torque variations. View full abstract»

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    Market constrained optimal planning for wind energy conversion systems over multiple installation sites

    Roy, S.
    Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 17 , Issue: 1
    DOI: 10.1109/60.986449
    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 124 - 129
    Cited by:  Papers (33)

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    This paper presents two market dependent optimization algorithms that can be used to plan wind energy conversion system (WECS) installations simultaneously over several sites of interest to a utility, within the scope of (1) available WECS models, (2) power demand of the utility, and (3) wind characteristics at each site; both (2) and (3) being variable with time and subject to seasonal changes. A suitable case study illustrates application of the planning algorithms to a scenario comprising of eight installation sites, using a representative market database consisting of 37 available models of WECS View full abstract»

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    Control for Maximal Wind Energy Tracing in Brushless Doubly-Fed Wind Power Generation System Based on Double Synchronous Coordinates

    Qi Wang ; Xiaohu Chen ; Yanchao Ji
    Power System Technology, 2006. PowerCon 2006. International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ICPST.2006.321654
    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (4)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Using rotor d-p model as a start point, this paper analyses the mathematical model for brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) based on double synchronous reference frame. And, based on characteristics of BDFM, a new type of power control system is designed by applying flux oriented vector transformation control technology. This system realizes the decoupling control of active and reactive power of variable-speed constant-frequency (VSCF) generator by using the control windings of the generator to carry out the AC excitation. Meanwhile, because the generator structure is complex and the generator parameters are variable according to the environment, fuzzy control is used for the power loop of the outer loop to further enhance the robustness of the system. Thus high efficiency power generation is achieved through maximal wind energy capturing. Computer simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of this control strategy. View full abstract»

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    Application of STATCOM with energy storage for wind farm integration

    Castaneda, J. ; Enslin, J. ; Elizondo, D. ; Abed, N. ; Teleke, S.
    Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, 2010 IEEE PES

    DOI: 10.1109/TDC.2010.5484308
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (6)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    The application of a STATCOM and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can help alleviate some of the problems encountered with wind farm integration to the existing power system. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits obtained with STATCOM and BESS for this purpose. First, the paper identifies the power quality and some other issues in the Southern California Edison system where there is abundant wind generation. Computer simulations (e.g. load flow and transient stability) show that the application of a STATCOM with BESS can help the system survive under the most severe contingencies occurring in the area. The analysis also demonstrates that the BESS can help dispatch an individual wind farm in the area during steady state. The BESS can help reduce local wind generation curtailment, necessary during high generation and low local system load that causes transmission overloading, by absorbing the excess energy generated by the wind farms. View full abstract»

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    Rutgers university coastal ocean observation laboratory (RU-COOL) advanced modeling system developed to cost-effectively support offshore wind energy development and operational applications

    Seroka, G. ; Dunk, R. ; Glenn, S. ; Bowers, L. ; Kerfoot, J. ; Crowley, M. ; Roarty, H. ; Palamara, L.
    Oceans, 2012

    DOI: 10.1109/OCEANS.2012.6404935
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Studies are underway that are evaluating the offshore wind resource along the coast of New Jersey in an effort to determine the variability of the wind resource. One major source of variability is the sea-land breeze circulation that occurs during periods of peak energy demand. The sea breeze front, driven by the thermal difference between the warm land and relatively cooler ocean during hot summer afternoons, propagates inland and under weak atmospheric boundary layer wind conditions can affect much of the state. However, little is known about the offshore component of the sea breeze circulation. A large zone of subsidence over the coastal ocean, and subsequent divergence near the surface, is known to occur in unison with the inland-propagating sea breeze front. RU-COOL's unique monitoring and modeling endeavors are focused on exploring the details of these offshore dynamics of the sea breeze circulation and its development during both coastal upwelling and non-upwelling events. A case study from the August 13, 2012 is analyzed in this paper; coastal upwelling resulted from persistent south to southeasterly winds for days. In addition, a sea breeze front formed in the afternoon, propagating inland and producing a zone of weak winds offshore that coincides with the targeted area of offshore wind development. Model results, using unique declouded satellite sea surface temperature data, are validated inshore against weather radar and offshore against coastal ocean radar (CODAR). Small-scale offshore wind variability is resolved and verified in the model, which will be critical for producing accurate and reliable offshore wind resource assessments and precise operational forecasts for the future. View full abstract»

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    A current output hard-switched full bridge DC/DC converter for wind energy conversion system

    Fan, S. ; Ma, W. ; Liu, G. ; Yang, Z. ; Williams, B.W. ; Zhao, H.
    Renewable Power Generation Conference (RPG 2013), 2nd IET

    DOI: 10.1049/cp.2013.1843
    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4

    IET Conference Publications

    This paper presents a current output hard-switched full-bridge (HSFB) converter with an intermediate high frequency transformer as an option of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The wind turbine simulator, based on an induction machine driving a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator, is built to simulate the real wind turbine characteristics. Comparative analysis of electrical stresses on the switch of the boost converter and the current output HSFB converter is carried out at different wind speeds and maximum operational power point based on their mathematical models. The control system of the current output HSFB is illustrated. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of a current output HSFB converter based WECS. View full abstract»

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    A new utility function for smooth transition between exploration and exploitation of a wind energy field

    Jen Jen Chung ; Angel, M. ; Soto, T. ; Sukkarieh, S.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/IROS.2012.6385736
    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4999 - 5005
    Cited by:  Papers (2)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Multimedia

    This paper presents a new data driven utility function for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mapping and exploiting a wind field. The proposed utility function provides a continuous scale between exploration and exploitation which is dependent on the difference between the current platform energy level and the uncertainty along a planned path. Tests were carried out in a VICON testbed using quadrotors programmed to emulate fixed-wing aircraft. Results show a 47.7% reduction in energy gain loitering time when compared to a pure information gain approach. View full abstract»

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    Controlled and efficient electrohydrodynamic spraying of water in an electrostatic wind energy converter (EWICON)

    Djairam, D. ; de Wit, A.T. ; Morshuis, P.H.F. ; Smit, J.J.
    Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, 2008. CEIDP 2008. Annual Report Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/CEIDP.2008.4772829
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 169 - 172

    IEEE Conference Publications

    In this paper, the optimisation of an electrohydrodynamic atomisation based spraying system is discussed which is able to spray charged water droplets in a controlled way. Spraying of charged water droplets is a means to efficiently and ecologically convert wind energy into electrical energy using a method called electrostatic wind energy conversion (EWICON). The new spraying implementations have successfully been tested in an EWICON system yielding higher spraying currents than previous water spraying systems. Using newly designed electrode configurations, 30-50 mum diameter droplets have consistently been produced as opposed to the chaotic distribution found in conventional EHDA-based water spraying systems. View full abstract»

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    Condition Monitoring and ault Diagnosis in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: A Review

    Amirat, Y. ; Benbouzid, M.E.H. ; Bensaker, B. ; Wamkeue, R.
    Electric Machines & Drives Conference, 2007. IEMDC '07. IEEE International

    Volume: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/IEMDC.2007.383639
    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1434 - 1439
    Cited by:  Papers (12)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    There is a constant need for the reduction of operational and maintenance costs of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The most efficient way of reducing these costs would be to continuously monitor the condition of these systems. This allows for early detection of the degeneration of the generator health, facilitating a proactive response, minimizing downtime, and maximizing productivity. Wind generators are also inaccessible since they are situated on extremely high towers, which are normally 20 m or greater in height. There are also plans to increase the number of offshore sites increasing the need for a remote means of WECS monitoring that eliminates some of the difficulties faced due to accessibility problems. Therefore and due to the importance of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in WECS (blades, drive trains, and generators); and keeping in mind the need for future research, this paper is intended as a tutorial overview based on a review of the state of the art, describing different type of faults, their generated signatures, and their diagnostic schemes. View full abstract»

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    Sizing energy storage systems for wind power firming: An analytical approach and a cost-benefit analysis

    Ha Thu Le ; Thang Quang Nguyen
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2008.4596223
    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (10)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Installing energy storage systems (ESS) for firming wind farm power can bring many benefits to both power grids and wind power developers. The grids benefit from better-behaved wind farms with less negative impacts while the wind power developers benefit from increased revenues. This study develops an analytical approach to determine the rating of ESS for the application. The approach effectiveness is validated by a case study where the ESS optimal ratings for eight wind farms are determined. The study also provides an economic analysis to estimate the profitability of the ESS projects. The approach proves to be a simple and flexible guide for solving the ESS-sizing problem. The quantitative results show that the ESS-application could be profitable. The study also reveals the need to further define and establish benefit criteria for ESS-related application with wind farms. View full abstract»

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    Maximum Power Point Tracking Based Optimal Control Wind Energy Conversion System

    Nadhir, A. ; Hiyama, T.
    Advances in Computing, Control and Telecommunication Technologies (ACT), 2010 Second International Conference on

    DOI: 10.1109/ACT.2010.38
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 41 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    Problem of control associated wind energy conversion systems using horizontal-axis fixed-pitch variable-speed low-power, working in the partial load region, consisting in the energy conversion maximization, is approached here under the assumption that the wind turbine model and its parameters are poorly known. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) by using an approach derived from the optimum seeking methods category, is the proposed control solution aims at driving the average position of the operating point near to optimality. The reference of the rotational speed control loop is adjusted such that the turbine operates around maximum power for the current wind speed value. In order to establish whether this reference must be either increased or decreased, it is necessary to estimate the current position of the operating point in relation to the maximum of Pwt(Wl) curve. Numerical simulations are used for preliminary checking the control law based on this estimation. View full abstract»

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    A novel wind energy system

    Tze-Fun Chan ; Loi Lei Lai
    Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES '09. IEEE

    DOI: 10.1109/PES.2009.5275703
    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)

    IEEE Conference Publications

    A novel wind energy system is proposed and studied in this paper. An axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous generator (AFPMSG) is directly coupled to a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), which can be an H-Darrieus, Savonius, Hunt turbine, or others. The AFPMSG has an outer-rotor construction for convenient mounting to the turbine rotor structure. The coreless armature winding design eliminates cogging torque and unbalanced magnetic pull, giving smooth operation with low losses. Performance of a prototype generator is studied. The magnetic field distribution of the AFPMSG is studied using a two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) and analytical methods. By using the concept of image magnetic charges, we show that the normal component of flux density is reduced appreciably at the inner and outer circumferential regions. View full abstract»

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    Probabilistic Approach for Power Capacity Specification of Wind Energy Storage Systems

    Xiaoyu Wang ; Meng Yue ; Muljadi, E. ; Wenzhong Gao
    Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

    Volume: 50 , Issue: 2
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2013.2272753
    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 1215 - 1224

    IEEE Journals & Magazines

    To accommodate the wind power fluctuations, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a supercapacitor is evaluated in this paper. A probabilistic approach for economically determining the power capacity specification for the HESS is proposed. This method would allow the capacities of the BESS and the supercapacitor to be properly designed to optimize the characteristics of high energy density of the BESS and high power density of the supercapacitor. Results show that the supercapacitor within the HESS helps to process the high frequency fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of the BESS lifetime. In addition, the supercapacitor helps to address the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round-trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been simulated using real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. View full abstract»

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    Variable gains super-twisting control for wind energy conversion optimization

    Evangelista, C. ; Puleston, P. ; Valenciaga, F. ; Dávila, A.
    Variable Structure Systems (VSS), 2010 11th International Workshop on

    DOI: 10.1109/VSS.2010.5544713
    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (1)