The abstract page provides full abstract records for most documents, including the title, authors and affiliations; publication title, publication date, and volume, issue, and page numbers (if appropriate); and the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). These items are also included in each listing on the search results page.
Although everyone can view the abstract page, the page provides some information and functions that are available only to subscribers and IEEE members.
See occurrences of the search terms you specified, indicated by words shown in orange, if you navigated to the abstract from the search results page.
E-mail or print the page.
Arrange for rights and permissions by selecting , which takes you to the Copyright Clearance Center's Rightslink electronic permissions service page
Search on author names conveniently by clicking the live author-name links.
Share an article via Facebook, LinkedIn, or Twitter.
View additional bibliographic details.
Click the Standard Versions tab to see a list of active, draft, withdrawn, and archived versions of the standard (standards only).
View titles recommended by IEEE Xplore in the Related Content box, and go directly to their abstract pages (journal and & magazine articles, conference papers, and standards only). Recommendations are determined based on matches on keywords for similar document titles and index terms.
View new courses offered by IEEE Xplore in the New Course Offerings box, and go directly to their abstract pages (educational courses only).
View and access recently published books in the Recently Published box, and go directly to their abstract pages (books and eBooks only).
Search on IEEE terms, author keywords, and other terms conveniently by clicking the live Index Terms links.
Click the References tab to view the list of references in the document, if available, and view the individual abstracts and full text for each reference (available to publication subscribers). You can also view a referenced document if it is available via to the publisher’s website. Or, if your institution has OpenURL set up, you can click on the link to access the document within your library's holdings ( journal and magazine articles, conferences papers, and standards only).
Click the Citing Documents tab to view the list of IEEE documents that cite the current document, if available, and view the individual abstracts and full text for each document (available to publication subscribers) (journal articles and conference papers only).
Purchase the document, book, or educational course when available.
View article bibliometrics via the Metrics tab.
Access full text.
Click the Standard Dictionary Terms tab to view a list of words and found in the document and their definitions, if available (standards only).
Note: If abstracts for a record aren't available, the field for abstract will come up blank or in certain instances will display the first page of the full text.
For more information:
Tutorial: Finding More with the Expanded Abstract in IEEE Xplore
Working with Search Results
Viewing a PDF Document
Purchasing a Document