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Nanofluidics presents growing and exciting opportunities for conducting fundamental studies for processes and systems that govern molecular-scale operations in science and engineering. In addition, nanofluidics provides a rapidly growing platform for developing new systems and technologies for an ever-growing list of applications. This review presents a summary of the transport phenomena in nanofluidics with a focus on several systems and applications important to problems of public health and welfare. Special emphasis is afforded to the role of the electric double layer and the molecular-scale interactions that occur within confined nanoscale systems.